In 1664 Moses Baruh Lousada #46 (here named Moses Baruh), David Abravanel (here named Emanuel Martinez Dormido) and Elias de Lima successfully petitioned Charles 2 against malicious legal action by rival merchants (see above extract from Bevis Marks Records 1 plate III). Jacob Sasportas reported that the King ‘chuckled and spat on the business; and a written statement was issued from him, duly signed, affirming that no untoward measures had been or would be initiated against us’ (ref 12 p292).
 
The 'records and accounts' of the community (
ref 97 folio 6a 'The Libro') contains a wealth of data on the workings of the re-established London Jewish community. In it can be found an early signature of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 (here named Moseh Baruh Louzada) and David Abravanel (here named David Abrabanel Dormido). Elias de Lima (the other original Mahamad member) is here called Eliau de Limma. The Haham Jacob Sasportas (1610-98; born in Oran, Morocco) was briefly spiritual leader of the community in 1666 but then settled in Amsterdam to avoid the Plague. His signature is in cursive Hebrew script (top centre). The long-term associate (see note 1 below) of Moses Baruh Lousada appears above (with remarkably similar handwriting) as Jahacob Gomez Serra. Their common trading aliases were Antonio Louzada and Antonio Gomes Serra.

 

 
A late signature of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 can be found
on the 1696 order by the Bevis Marks Mahamad barring silver and gold exports. Here he spells his name Mosehe Baruh Louzada (part 1 of Bevis Marks Records plate IX)

 

 Moses Baruh Lousada #46 - early community leader of the London Spanish and Portuguese Jewish congregation

 

In 1657 the new London community of Spanish and Portuguese Jews established a meeting place in Creechurch Lane and the Velho (old) cemetery off Mile End Road. Hyamson (ref 6) notes that in 1660 informers attempting to secure the destruction of the newly resettled community listed 'Moses and Jacob (see note 5 below) Baruh or Barrow (see note 10 below), better known as Baruh Lousada'. But undeterred by such intrigue the congregation elected its first formal Mahamad (governing body) in late 1663, with Moses Baruh Lousada #46 elected Gabay (treasurer) on 18 November 1663. The signatories to the first Code of Ascamot (synagogue by-laws) unsurprisingly include him (see note 13 below). Soon enough the first 3 members of the Mahamad had an urgent and vital task to perform - see top left-hand image - and as noted in Bevis Marks Records I:9 this was the first time the community had obtained an authoritative written statement which recognized the privileges enjoyed since 1656. Then from Hyamson we learn that Moses returned to the Mahamad in 1668 and 1683, was a signatory of the Code of Ascamot of 1677, and was a 'seatholder' in 1682, and as can be seen above he signed a Mahamad order in 1696 as a yehidim (ordinary community member). His selection for a key early role in the community may stem from the fact that he was a cousin of Abraham Israel Pereira a key financier of Maunel Soeiro aka Menasseh ben Israel 1604-57, the leading advocate for Jewish resettlement of England, whilst community leader David Abravanel appears to have been a brother-in-law of Menasseh ben Israel

Moses Baruh Lousada became a broker of the City of London in 1679 (ref 5). The payments by Moses to the London Jewish community put him in the middle rank of merchants (ref 97). A key trading link was with his brother Aaron Baruh Lousada of Barbados, but this link was in the context of a family business which evolved as the family progressively reached Amsterdam. Amsterdam tax payments tell us much about the whereabouts of the family in the second half of the 17th century. To begin with Isaac, the father (or stepfather/uncle) of Moses Baruh Lousada was in Livorno during the 1640-60 period but reached Amsterdam by 1662. Though as indicated above Moses Baruh Lousada #46 first appears in London in 1660, he had been an annual visitor (if not a resident) in Amsterdam in the period 1649-59. Moses returned to Amsterdam briefly in 1662 and 1665, whilst Jacob moved there in 1662 where he died in 1681. His younger brother David was also in Barbados around 1667, having links with Curacao and perhaps Surinam, before he appeared in Amsterdam in 1672. Another (also younger) Barbados brother was Abraham #45 (ref 5) though ultimately Abraham came to London (see note 9 below) from where he spent much time in Amsterdam (see note 12 below). Late in his life, Moses Baruh Lousada may have been in the diamond trade with India (see note 2 below) which does not seem to have successful but the family had evidently accumulated some wealth before Moses and David died, for it owned stock in the Bank of England late in their lives and for a period thereafter (see note 14 below).

Before Livorno, the family may have been in Madrid with associated families and perhaps Moses was born there in Spain in 1624 (as the Barrow Family Tree asserts). This is one of a number of hints, all of which surround his family's links to the associated families of Villaflor and Madrid. Perhaps Moses came via France (see note 11). Moses seems to have married (at least) twice with both known wives being of the Henriques Faro family (see note 3 below). His long-term business partner (see above) bore the Serra name used by the Montezinos family and also the Gomes name - while the in-laws of his Barbados brother Aaron bore the Gomes Henriques name, a pair of names reminiscent of the earlier Lamegos. Further work may clarify the particulars of those links. Perhaps because of the Plague during his time in London, his own family was small with only 2 sons Abraham #1352 (see notes 4 and 9 below) and Mordecai #66 (see note 4 below), and a daughter Sarah #257 (see note 6 below), reaching adulthood (see also note 8 below)Mordecai seems to have not married, while Sarah in Amsterdam produced surviving children but no grandchildren, while Abraham may have produced one surviving child (see note 7 below) but no grandchildren. Moses #46 died on 3 Adar 5459 (ref 98) ie 2 Feb 1699 and was buried at the Velho Cemetery. From Amsterdam Sarah's husband and 2 sons (one called Moses) appeared in a London court case in 1738 between 2 branches of the Bernal family, but it seems the line of Moses #46 came to an end in London and Amsterdam just about the time his grand-nephew Jacob #36 arrived in London from Jamaica in 1743.

 

Notes:

1. Jacob Gomes Serra, written above as Jahacob Gomez Serra, was also known as Antonio Gomesera. He outlasted Moses Baruh Lousada, dying on 4 Kislev 5467 or 10 Nov 1706. From Hyamson we learn that Gomes Serra was Gabay in 1667 and 1674, and on the Mahamad in 1691,1697 and 1700. From ref 37 we learn that 'in the years immediately following the Fire of London, in addition to the da Costas, it is Michael Levy, Gomes Rodrigues, and the partnership of Anthony Gomeserra and Moses Baruh Lousada trading as Serra & Lousada, that are the most prominent among the Jewish importers. Linen from N.W. Europe and sugar from Barbados and the Azores formed the bulk of their trade'. A daughter of Jacob Gomes Serra married Abraham Franco at Bevis Marks in 1698 (BMR 2 #55). A customs incident at Falmouth, involving Antonio Gomes Serra and Antonio Louzada, is well known. Holly Snyder in her essay in ‘Atlantic Diasporas’ (ref 8) informs us that in 1680 a customs agent Samuel Hayne from Falmouth examined the cargo of the ship Experiment only to find that the goods entered under the name of the English Quaker captain were in fact consigned to 35 different traders – all Jewish in Hayne’s account. She goes on to say that Hayne asserted that the Jewish merchants were not entitled to conduct trade as English subjects and duty was payable as the ship was en route from Barbados ultimately to Amsterdam and did not unload at Falmouth for inspection as the law for aliens required. Then we learn that Hayne was resisted in law by Antonio Gomez Serra and Antonio Louzada, merchants based in London, who had been granted Patents of Endenization from the Crown in 1672 and 1675 respectively. The jury, by some accounts perhaps bribed, concluded that the goods belonged to Gomez Serra and Louzada.  Ref 117(p64) gives another slant - Hayne refused bribes, and pressure in London on the authorities cost Hayne his job. This incident illustrates how the Amsterdam/Barbados trade via England worked - London representation was required to provide English involvement in the trade with the English colonies - principally Surinam (until 1667), Barbados and Jamaica - and to comply with mercantilist policies such as the Navigation Acts of 1651 and 1660 which were aimed at the Dutch and which restricted trade of colonial goods to English destinations. Further detail can be found in ref 61. A connection yet to be explored is that the Serra name was one used by the Levi Montezinos family (ref 153), with whom the Baruch Lousadas have several connections going back to Villaflor and Livorno. The Gomes Serra name thus suggests a Lamego marriage to a Levi Montezinos since the Gomes name appears amongst the early Lamegos.

2. Edgar Samuel found that in 1696 Sir Francis Child a Fleet Street goldsmith/banker and 'Jeweller in Ordinary' to King William 3 organized a syndicate of 17 London jewelers to send £2500 out to Abraham Pluymer to buy diamonds in Madras. Moses Barrow (Lousada) was one of the 17. In ref 84 p144 can be found reference to a 1700 diamond delivery to the value of £11,329 to Moses Barrow (Barukh Lousada) and Joseph Gomes. Moses Baruh Lousada died in 1699 so it is somewhat unclear whether this shipment arrived posthumously, or whether it and perhaps even the first item of diamond business was instead attributable to his (probable) grandson of the same name (the Bank of England shareholder discussed elsewhere). The name Joseph Gomes may refer to the son Joshua of Jacob Gomes Serra (discussed in note 1 above). The second transaction was not profitable, so perhaps the next generation was learning the ropes!

3. In the 15 Elul 5442 circumcision record (also discussed in note 4 below) Moses Enriques Faro a 'forasteiro' or outsider (perhaps a newly-arrived Portuguese) - was given as an uncle. So both siblings Abraham #1352 and Sarah #257 (see note 6 below) seem to have had Henriques Faro uncles - Moses and Abraham respectively. Because Abraham and Sarah seem to have been born about 30 years apart, probably these uncles were also a generation apart and so perhaps Moses had 2 marriages - both to a Henriques Faro and thus Abraham and Sarah were half-siblings. We have illustrated this connection which as will be observed received support from another quarter.

4. The 15 Elul 5442 circumcision record (also discussed in note 3 above) of a son of Abraham shows it took place in the house of Moses Baruh Lousada 'father of Abraham and Mordehay'. The newborn grandson does not appear to have survived. Moses was given 2 sons in the Benjamin Barrow Lousada family tree (one with the name Moses - which raises a cautionary note since we have found from Amsterdam marriage data that the incidence of same-name sons is only 2%), but we found that 6 or 7 sons were suggested in ref 85, whilst ref 6 p27 added to the confusion by suggesting 'three of his brothers and also his two sons settled in Barbados and Jamaica' whereas we shall see he did not have brothers in Jamaica and his sons did not settle in either Jamaica or Barbados! We can see here that he had 2 sons Abraham and Mordecai, and Mordecai acted as an executor of his father's affairs after 1699 as the family financial settlement shows. One daughter Sarah survived to adulthood and was married in Bevis Marks in 1709 to cousin Solomon son of David #44 and went to live in Amsterdam (see note 6 below) where she had 2 children (see Amsterdam Baruch Lousadas).

5. It is possible Jacob was a half-brother, for the family of Isaac #42 was blended. Aaron #376 of Barbados was the son not of Isaac but David. It is certainly possible that Moses and Aaron were full brothers, but many of the other siblings may have been half-siblings. Given that Jacob pre-deceased Aaron, Moses, David and Abraham he may have been part of the first batch of children and thus a full brother of Aaron and Moses. Of course there is some likelihood that Isaac and David the elder were brothers. This scenario appears here.

6. The daughter Sarah appears in the 1695 census lists (ref 102) where we see a Moses Barrew with wife Rachel, a bachelor Mordechai and a child Sarah who would have been almost a generation later than her brothers Abraham and Mordecai. From Part 2 of Bevis Marks Records we find the marriage of Sarah on 15 Kislev 5469 or 28 Nov 1708 (to a cousin - see family chart). The marriage of Sarah's was also recorded in 1709 in Amsterdam and this latter record reveals that her uncle was Abraham Henriques Faro (see note 3 as this information suggests that the 2nd wife of Moses Baruh Lousada was also a Henriques Faro - a niece of his first wife). The circumcision and other birth records (part IV of Bevis Marks Records) show a daughter of Moses was born 24 Sivan 5439 which could have been Sarah making her (slightly implausibly but not impossibly so) aged 29 when she married her cousin. The Henriques Faro link, plus their link to Abraham Israel Pereira, makes them descendants of the extraordinary cluster of families in Villalfor around 1600.

7.  Mordecai appears in the Benjamin Barrow Lousada family tree and was buried at the Velho Cemetery in 1721. Another Mordecai was buried in 1733 - and we have no basis for distinguishing them but perhaps they were cousins as shown in our chart of London Baruch Lousadas.

8. The circumcision and other birth records (part IV of Bevis Marks Records) show (for 27 Tamuz 5446) another son of Moses though as he does not appear in the 1695 census he may not have survived childhood.

9. Confusingly both brother Abraham #45 and son Abraham #1352 were fathers in the 1680s and 1690s. The reason for this is that Abraham the uncle having died in 1714 seems to have been the youngest of the brothers and was perhaps born 20 years after Moses and perhaps only 10 or even fewer years before his nephew. We distinguish the 2 Abrahams by pointing to Luna's name which echoes that of her paternal grandmother making her the daughter of Abraham #45 the uncle. We therefore suggest that it is Abraham #45 who figures in the 1695 census in St James Duke's Place as Abraham Barrew (merchant) with wife Rebecca, daughter Luna and son Aaron. The circumcision records (part IV of Bevis Marks Records) show (for 6 Nisan 5455 which is 22 March 1695 or thereabouts) a son of Abraham. This son could have (just - see ref 154) been the Aaron who appeared in the 1695 census. There is only one grave of Abraham Baruh Lousada known in London - ignoring the 2 Abrahams who had a Lousada surname without the Baruh first surname - but we suggest that it was Abraham #45 who was buried at Velho Cemetery in 1714 - a date consistent with him appearing in the will of Jacob Israel Pereira who died in 1707. Abraham #1352 may have died elsewhere or perhaps his London grave was lost. From Part 1 of Bevis Marks Records we learn that a self-census of members of the community (414 persons in total) shows an Abraham Baruch Loisada (and wife) plus Moseh Baruch Loisada (plus wife, son and daughter). This survey was conducted around 1680 by Abraham Israel Zagache and the relevant document was found in Amsterdam. Zagache arrived in London in 1680 and in Hamburg in 1684. This evidence suggests Abraham #1352 was recorded before the birth of the son circumcised in 1682 (see note 4 above) and that his uncle Abraham #45 had not yet arrived from Barbados. In addition we learn that in the London Directory of 1677 appears 'Moses Baruch Loisada, or Louzada' entered as 'Moses Barrew' in Duke's Place - and the absence of Abraham in this evidence suggests that Abraham #1352 had not left his father's house and unsurprisingly confirms that Abraham #45 had not yet arrived from Barbados.

10. The fact that one of his London names was Moses Barrow (ref 6) did not make him an ancestor of the Barrows! Their Barrow surname arose in Barbados.

11. A Moses Baruch Lousada came to London via France (ref 121 - this data comes from before 1676 and thus could apply to either Moses #46 or Moses #1419), and thus it is possible he came via Rouen where the Lamegos operated a trading business for several generations in the 1617-1653 period and perhaps longer before retreating to Bordeaux. They did business with Fernando Montezinos of Madrid who originated in the Villaflor complex of families and was thus linked to the Baruch Lousadas. However since Moses #46 was regularly in Amsterdam 1649-59, perhaps it was his probable uncle Moses #1419 who came to London from France though the uncle was very old at the time the data was compiled. The plausible source of  Moses #1419 is that he was born in Portugal around 1586 as probably the last son of Amador de Lousada but this is yet to be confirmed.

12. He gave a character reference there in 1698 - ref 175 #1 - and he appeared in the 1703 will of Jacob Israel Pereira - ref 141. The 2 Abrahams - uncle and nephew - are distinguished in note 9 above and the uncle's Amsterdam travel is further discussed here (in note 6). Abraham #45 was known in London in the 1995 London census, but in 1698 appears to have been in Amsterdam where he lent his name to a character reference (ref 175 #1). He had received a pass to travel to Amsterdam on 17 Apr 1696 (ref 182) the same day that his brother David and nephew Jacob/James received their passes to travel to Barbados. It seems that Abraham went to Amsterdam to cover for his brother while David was in Barbados presumably to rearrange the family business in the wake of their Barbados brother Aaron's death on 16 Sep 1695.

13. As Edgar Samuel advised in his email of 31 Jan 2013 Moses Baruh Lousada had been given the task of writing the first Code of Ascamot. This task would not have been given to a new arrival from Portugal; indeed his father lived as a Jew in Livorno in the 1640-1660 period and Moses had no doubt acquired there and in Amsterdam much more of Jewish rite than had survived within the (New Christian) family in Spain and Portugal.

14. The Bank of England stockholder was also named Moses Baruh Lousada. In fact there were 3 more or less contemporaneous London people called Moses Baruh Lousada - one who died in 1677, Moses #46, and the Bank of England stockholder. This has caused confusion which we have clarified elsewhere. There, in note 1, we see that the Bank of England stockholder (who apparently held the stock on behalf of family members) was probably a son of the 1673 marriage in Amsterdam of David #44 and, like his brother Jacob/James before him in 1687, he was sent to London to be endenized in 1694 at which point he would have been around 19. In 1697 when he collected Bank of England dividends he was probably around 22. Perhaps he matured early and inherited the outstanding qualities of his father. His endenization is listed (as shown in ref 42 #149) together with that of some Jews from Barbados, suggesting Barbados trade was the reason for his endenization, but he does not seem to have spent (much) time in Barbados. He must instead have become a trusted family member in London, for his uncle Abraham #45 spent much time in Amsterdam (see note 12 above) especially after the death of his brothers Moses #46 and David #44 both in 1699.