Livorno is in Tuscany - and today serves in part as a tourist hub for cruise-ship passengers to visit Pisa, Lucca, Firenze and Siena.

The Fortezza Nuova, in Medici times, defended the city from attack by pirates. The original fortress was built before the Renaissance. This was constructed at the end of the 16th century. Livorno had become attractive to Jewish merchants due to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and his laws of the 1590s which meant low taxes for merchants and no Inquisition to threaten those who relinquished their New Christian past. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany came under direct Habsburg rule in 1765 (ref 64 p76) but the favourable tax treatment for Sephardic Jews lasted until Napoleon.


Intererior of the synagogue of Livorno in 1642, this image appearing on p32 of Genealo-J (130) Summer 2017. Isaac Baruch Lousada participated in synangogue elections around this time. He left for Amsterdam around 1660, but relatives remained and their descendants appeared in Tunis around 1700. A further descendant married an Ashkenasi named Baruch here around 1708, to found the Barrow family which after a marriage here to a Montefiore moved to Barbados and then flourished in England. The Venetian Quarter of Livorno showing merchants houses and canals leading to the main harbour - photograph taken Sep 2013 by Julian Land

 We know the Baruch Lousadas spent time in Livorno in the mid 1600s. Amsterdam marriage records show that the energetic David #44 was born there in Livorno in 1640. His father Isaac #42 participated in Synagogue elections in 1641 and 1642 (see note 2 below), joined 'Hebra' in 1643/4 (see note 3 below), was elected to the Mahamad in 1644 (ref 185 p455), was a founding member of the Dowry Association (ref 185 p463) and in 1644-5 was living at 11 Via Genovese (ref 185 p447). Isaac #42 was last observed in Livorno in 1660 (see note 5). Details of the Baruch Lousadas and the Levi Lousadas (seen note 2 below) appearing in ref 185 have been compiled here. From this and other sources eg ref 225 and ref 286 we have charted the first Baruch Lousadas of Livorno and the first Levi Lousadas of Livorno.

Isaac left for Amsterdam around 1660 and a number of his sons and stepsons also left around this time (but see note 4 below). We have depicted this dispersal from Livorno and we suggest that an unknown son of Isaac remained in beyond the 1660s giving rise to numerous further (see note 1 below) descendants. The Franco family which in London intermarried with the Lousadas and d'Aguilars migrated in the decades after 1700 from here. Livorno is also the source of the English Montefiores (see Lousada marriages) but Simon Barrow #64 who heads the Barrow genealogy on this website married Bailah Montefiore here around 1740.



1. As discussed here the remaining Baruch Lousada son may have been Jacob and it may have been he who left a Montezinos descendant. Another Isaac appeared in 1686 who may have been a son of Jacob and a grandson of Isaac #42. Perhaps it was this second Isaac who left a descendant named Simon Barrow (of Barbados). Also, since it seems the second Isaac spent time in Tunis (ref 185 p469), he may have been the person who produced descendants in Tunis. Many Livorno Jews moved to Tunis around 1700 (ref 171). Livorno was also the source for some Lousadas going to Algeria (ref  62) but they were possibly Lumbroso Lousadas rather than Baruch Lousadas. A Judah Lousada appeared in Livorno in 1644-5, but not living with Isaac #42. He may have been a son of the widowed Mira (see chart of Livorno dispersal).

2. Isaac was living in the house of his uncle Abraham Levi Lousada in 1641 and 1642 (ref 149), while in 1686 Abraham and Jacob Levi Lousada were bullion workers in Livorno (acing as intermediaries between Constantinople and Amsterdam in the transit of some Hebrew books - #3 ref 175). Isaac Levi Lousada appeared in Tunis (ref 185 p470 and ref 186). A century later the family was still evident in Livorno as shown in the Decime property tax records in the City Archive.

3. We see this from, in that the year of his joining Hebra is given as 5404. As we can see above, Isaac was in Livorno before then. This reference suggests that 200 Sephardic Jews including Isaac assembled in Cadiz for transport to Livorno, though this is hard to square with his arrival by 1640 unless the transport was during or before 1640!

4. Probably Moses was a stepson, though possibly also a nephew - see here. He may have left Livorno somewhat before Isaac, for he was a regular visitor to Amsterdam 1649-59 and at least for a few of these years was probably based in France (presumably Rouen where the Lamegos were then based). Moses #1419 was probably never in Livorno, while Moses #1585, whom we suggest was a natural son of Isaac, must have left with his father for Amsterdam aged about 12.

5. Ref 107 and 108 show a Baruch Lousada presence until 1652. Isaac was there until 1660 at least, for from the reference in note 3 we made the extract below which gives the date 5420 = 1660 (though the original is hard to decipher - it may be 5422). Isaac appeared in Amsterdam in 1662.