Livorno is in Tuscany - and today serves in part as a tourist hub for cruise-ship passengers to visit Pisa, Lucca, Firenze and Siena.


The Fortezza Nuova, in Medici times, defended the city from attack by pirates. The original fortress was built before the Renaissance. This was constructed at the end of the 16th century. Livorno had become attractive to Jewish merchants due to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and his laws of the 1590s which meant low taxes for merchants and no Inquisition to threaten those who relinquished their New Christian past. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany came under direct Habsburg rule in 1765 (ref 64 p76) but the favourable tax treatment for Sephardic Jews lasted until Napoleon.

 

The Venetian Quarter of Livorno showing merchants houses and canals leading to the main harbour - photograph taken Sep 2013 by Julian Land

 We know the Baruch Lousadas spent time in Livorno in the mid 1600s. The energetic David #44 was born there in 1640. His father Isaac participated in Synagogue elections in 1641 and 1642 (see note 2 below), joined the Hebra charitable society in 1643/4 (see note 3 below), was elected to the Mahamad in 1644 (ref 185 p455), was a founding member of the Dowry Association (ref 185 p463) and in 1644-5 was living at 11 Via Genovese (ref 185 p447).

Isaac's son (see note 4 below) Moses was in Amsterdam for the decade 1649-59 but most of the family stayed in Livorno longer (see note 5 below). Then Moses appeared in London (with his brother Jacob) by 1660 as a Jewish community leader early in the resettlement of Jews in England, Aaron appeared in Barbados in 1659, and Isaac himself appeared in Amsterdam by 1662. Probably other branches continued the exodus (another Moses appeared in Surinam by 1671 - he could have been a son of Isaac or perhaps a nephew - and yet another Moses appeared in London by 1677 - probably a brother of Isaac).

We have depicted this dispersal from Livorno and there we suggest that an unknown son of Isaac remained in or returned to Livorno beyond the 1660s giving rise to numerous further (see note 1 below) descendants. The Franco family which in London intermarried with the Lousadas and d'Aguilars migrated in the decades after 1700 from here. Livorno is also the source of the English Montefiores (see Lousada marriages) but Simon Barrow #64 who heads the Barrow genealogy on this website married Bailah Montefiore here around 1740.

 

Notes:

1. As discussed here the remaining Baruch Lousada son left a Montezinos descendant and (probably) also a descendant named Simon Barrow (of Barbados), with other descendants going from Livorno to Tunis around 1700 (ref 171 and ref 185 p469). Livorno was also the source for some Lousadas going to Algeria (ref  62) but they were possibly Lumbroso Lousadas rather than Baruch Lousadas.

2. Isaac was living in the house of his uncle Abraham Levi Lousada in 1641 and 1642 (ref 149), while in 1686 Abraham and Jacob Levi Lousadas were bullion workers in Livorno (acing as intermediaries between Constantinople and Amsterdam in the transit of some Hebrew books - #3 ref 175). Isaac Levi Lousada appeared in Tunis (ref 185 p470 and ref 186). A century later the family was still evident in Livorno as shown in the Decime property tax records in the City Archive.

3. We see this from http://www.tarbutsefarad.com/san-fernando/3129-origen-de-la-comunidad-sefardita-de-livorno.html, in that the year of his joining is given as 5404.

4. Probably Moses was a stepson, though possibly also a nephew - see here.

5. Ref 107 and 108 show their presence until 1652 at least and Isaac was there until 1660 at least (see reference in note 3 and extract below).