The Baruch Lousada passage through Livorno in 1640-60 and their appearance in Barbados, London, Amsterdam, Surinam, Curacao and Jamaica
Thanks to our ready access to the historical literature, international collaborators and the expanding online data resource via the Internet, we have created a picture of the Baruch Lousada dispersal from Iberia through Livorno into the Atlantic. In so doing, we have been able to look across many relevant locations and see links which take us a lot further back than those family trees we inherited. Nevertheless despite our advantages, the task of piecing the family story together was not easy. For example, there were 10 people named Moses to consider and 5 named Jacob, but a satisfactory resolution has been achieved (see note 8 below). In addition we have been able to correct many errors in those family trees (see note 11 below).
Our current picture of how the Vinhais Lousadas transferred from Portugal to Livorno appears in the first 2 lines of the chart above (see note 10 for some ramifications of our reasoning). Then especially through ref 5 and Amsterdam data a picture emerges of a Baruch Lousada Barbados business run from Amsterdam in the 1659-99 period. Livorno might seem a strange place from which to launch such a business, but the Baruch Lousadas were probably not there long before Moses #46 went to Amsterdam in 1649, not long behind his wealthy cousin Abraham Israel Pereira who arrived in 1646. Pereira had come via Venice, and soon started investing in sugar refineries and Jewish causes. It was probably the loss of Dutch Brazil to Portugal in 1654 which triggered the business idea, which of course was not unique to the Baruch Lousadas. The influx of Jewish sugar people from Brazil made it necessary for the Dutch provinces and the Jewish community to look elsewhere for sugar and the English colony of Barbados was a good prospect. Because of the English Navigation Acts, it was essential to have an English presence to show English ownership of the cargos. Thus while a senior relative was stationed in Amsterdam (Isaac the father and Jacob #1388; and then David after their deaths in 1667 and 1681), Moses Baruh Lousada (briefly accompanied by Jacob #1388) was allocated the London role after first spending a decade in Amsterdam, while four siblings went to Barbados - David #44 initially, Aaron #376 (see note 9 for what we know of his life), Abraham #45 (who spent the last phase of his life in London after a period in Amsterdam - see note 6 below) and Gracia #43 (see note 12 below for a summary of her interesting and probably very influential life). Further siblings probably existed (see note 1) and probably the family was a composite one due to death of both original spouses with 2 remarriages (see notes 9 and 10 below). But David #44 seems to have become the leader of the family upon the death of his father Isaac #42 (see note 13 below).
We have separately charted the Baruch Lousadas in each of their destinations after Livorno. We have not yet depicted those Baruch Lousadas remaining in Livorno after 1660 (see note 1 below), nor have we shown how the Den Haag Louzadas (see note 4 below) link with the above Baruch Lousadas. And perhaps the mother of Tomas Rodrigues Pereira (aka Abraham Israel Pereira - see note 2 below) did not follow her son to Amsterdam via Venice nor her family to Livorno. The chart shows linkage with the Livorno Levi Lousadas, but we know little of them (see note 5 below).
1. The chart indicates at least one brother of unknown name remained in Livorno - many things show this. Thus there was a Baruch Lousada link in the following generation with the Montezinos family. Later in Livorno a link developed creating the Barrows. The Baruch Lousadas of Tunis are not shown in the chart and neither is an earlier generation with Jacob Baruch Lousada together with Isaac Baruch Lousada appearing in Tunis in 1686 (from ref 185 p469). This 6th Jacob may be of the same generation as Jacob #1388 but descended from Isaac #42 (after whom the Tunis Isaac was thus named). That is, Jacob #1388 who died first of the siblings may well be best placed in same marriage which produced Aaron #376 and Moses #46 (see note 10 below) which is why the chart queries his current placement. There is a further possible sibling Daniel (see note 7 below) not shown. The Samuel (and his daughter Rachel) who appears in Amsterdam records may be one of the remnant Livorno Baruch Lousadas but we have no evidence of this.
2. Abraham Israel Pereira financed Menasseh ben Israel, and thus may have had something to do with the high community position that Antonio Louzada found himself in upon reaching London for Abraham Israel Pereira was cousin of his brother Abraham #45 (ref 141)! The Israel Pereira family flourished in Amsterdam and London and a descendant of Moses Israel Pereira a son of Abraham Pereira has been in touch and is related as shown here.
3. The above chart displays an important methodological step - which is that we initially excluded all Lousadas other than the Baruch Lousadas. The chart shows outside the lines some of these other Lousadas eg to the left of the chart is the NY chocolate merchant Jacob de Lossada #51 and his father-in-law Abraham (Bevis Marks Records 2 marriages #64 and #65 both on 6 Kislev 5459) - who both joined the London Jewish community at a mature age to make possible their Jewish marriages - they like Den Haag Louzadas did not seem to use the Baruch name (but see note 4 below). Neither does Abram Dias de Lousada (not shown above) who married in London in 1700. We also exclude the Baruchs/Barrows who do not have the Lousada second surname. Thus, to the right of the chart is Isaque Moses Barak (21) of Jamaica who was perhaps the son of the Moses Baruch who is known to have wanted to leave Surinam on the Dutch takeover, and Moses Barrow #984 might have been a grandson. In their case we have also resisted the temptation to identify Moses Barrow #984 with the Barrows - for Simon Barrow of Barbados seems to have come to Barbados from Livorno and his father Baruch from somewhere (Vienna?) in the Austro-Hungarian Empire to Livorno. But some people we excluded may need to be revisited (see note 4 below).
4. Not shown above are the Den Haag Louzadas who may be related but perhaps left Iberia via Venice rather than Livorno as shown in the chart above. And perhaps it is possible that - with the Den Haag Louzadas who did (but rarely) use the Baruch surname - the USA Lousadas may also descend from Fernando the son of Amador de Lousada and in any case came to London in 1698 to escape the Portuguese Inquisition. If so this could have been a 3rd Lousada departure from Iberia. Also - see note 5 - the Levi Lousadas are closely related.
5. In Livorno Isaac #42 stayed in the house of his uncle Abraham Levi Lousada (ref 149) - perhaps the ancestor of all the Levi Lousadas. Perhaps Abraham Levi Lousada is the (grandson of the) person who appears with Jacob Levi Lousada as bullion workers in Livorno who assisted in the supply of some Hebrew books to Manuel and Jacob Athias (ref 175 #3). We have not attempted to link Abraham and Jacob to the only Amsterdam Levi Lousada in the records (David who died on 30 Aug 1744) - nor the Isaac who appeared in Tunis (ref 186). In the 1700s the Levi Lousadas appear to have greatly outnumbered the Baruch Lousadas in Livorno as we saw in the Decime property records at the Livorno City Archive. The chart above makes a suggestion as to how the Baruch Lousadas and the Levi Lousadas were related, using a link based on the mother of Amador de Lousada Briatis Mendes, and reflecting her probable first name Luna which was the name of a daughter of Isaac #42 in the face of his wife also being named Luna.
6. Of the children of Isaac #42, Abraham #45 is known to have outlasted Jacob, Aaron, Moses, David and Gracia. His date of death in 1714 suggests that Abraham #45 was the youngest of his siblings, perhaps not much older than his nephew Abraham #1352. We distinguish Abraham #45 from his nephew Abraham #1352 here (note 6) and discuss his London/Amsterdam travel here (note 12). Abraham #45 may have been named after Abraham Levi Lousada, the possible father of Luna and her suggested sister (see note 10 below).
7. Daniel Baruch Lousada in 1674 appears in Boston with Roeland Gideon, according to a notary record (ref 175 #4) of a dispute over a commercial bill where the relevant cargo (presumably on a Barbados to Amsterdam trip) was exchanged in Boston; in Amsterdam David #44 and Jacob #1388 were involved. Roeland Gideon aka Rehuel Abudiente aka Rohuel Obediente was probably born in Hamburg, travelled to Barbados and then via Antigua and Nevis to England (ref 21 p197). He was in Boston in 1674/5 and he died in London in 1722 (ref 5 p37). On 7 Sep 2016 Ton Tielen remarked that the given names Rehuel and Gideon are fascinating - generally the name Rehuel in the Western Sephardic world is linked to Rehuel Jessurun, the writer of Diologos dos Montas published in Amsterdam in the first half of the 17th century. The name Gideon is almost invariably bound to the Abudiente family. The names Rehuel and Gideon in the Abudiente family started when Moses de Gideon Abudiente married Sara Jessurun, daughter of Rehuel Jessurun.
8. There were 10 people named Moses - 4 in London and 6 in the Caribbean (2 in Curacao, 2 in Surinam, 1 in Jamaica and an infant in Barbados) and no text was found which adequately distinguished them. Of these, 3 were found to be probably not Baruch Lousadas using the criteria in note 3 and they fall outside the lines in the chart. The 7 remaining Moses Baruch Lousadas have been placed in our genealogies, but the number was reduced to 6 because the Surinam Moses Baruch Lousada probably was identical to the older Moses Baruch Lousada of Curacao. Only 4 of these 6 are shown in the chart above - we did not include the infant who died in Barbados (perhaps a son of Abraham #45), nor the younger Moses of Curacao (he does appear in our chart of the Baruch Lousadas of Surinam and Curacao). See note 10 below for our suggested ancestry of the first Moses of Curacao (and Surinam) and see our chart of the London Baruch Lousadas to distinguish between Moses #46, #67 and #1419. It was almost as confusing dealing with the 5 Jacobs (a 6th Jacob appeared in Tunis - see note 1 above), for each of 4 of them spent only part of his life in London while the 5th was born in Barbados and died in Jamaica. In 1660 a Jacob Baruh Lousada was in London (ref 6) with Moses Baruh Lousada #46, and it seems to have been he who arrived in Amsterdam in 1662 and died there in 1681. He was probably - with Solomon - these names appear in Amsterdam records (ref 99 and 105) - a brother of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 and we show him as Jacob #1388. It was easy to place Jacob/James #711 because after Aaron #376 died on 16 Sep 1695 David #44 and his son Jacob and daughter-in-law Rebecca travelled to Barbados together in mid-1696 (ref 182 shows passes were issued 17 Apr 1696). Rebecca soon died there so he then married Rachel but they both died around 1711. Our notes on resolving the Jacobs of Barbados can be found here, and one of them - Jacob #380 - after losing his wife Jael in Barbados in 1702 went to Jamaica with his brother Emanuel #41 (click here for our discussion on this translocation) where he married Abigail Lamego but died there in 1722. The 4th Jacob #36 became the head of the surviving English Baruh Lousadas. We eliminated the 5th Jacob using the criteria in note 3 - he became the NY chocolate merchant.
9. Details of the life of Aaron and his wife Rachel Gomes Henriques can be found in ref 5 and from this and other sources we have extracted details of their wills. Some of the financial repercussions of the death of in 1695 were not resolved until after the death of Moses in London 1699, and just before the death of David in Amsterdam in late 1699, with Mordecai son of Moses acting for his estate. From these sources, the first son of Aaron #376 of Barbados was a David not an Isaac (in fact Aaron's second son who died young was an Isaac). That is Aaron's natural father was David and Isaac #42 was his step-father. It was customary for a brother to offer himself as a new husband to a new widow, and this is what seems to have happened here. The first husband David was probably older than Isaac, we identify him with Diogo and Isaac with Francisco in our discussion of the Vinhais Lousadas where we also suggest Antonio became Daniel and Pedro became Moses #1418.
10. Moses #1585, the 1st Baruch Lousada of Surinam who died in Curacao in 1724, could have been placed as a son of Daniel and Mira. Daniel would have been almost 70 around 1650 the suggested birth year (in Fenneke's Surinam genealogy) of Moses #1585. Perhaps he was a grandson though in those times of change generation gaps were large and this scenario is also a little unlikely. In addition Mira went to Jerusalem in 1652, so the very young Moses #1585 would have been left in Livorno. The preferred alternative is to place him as as a son of Isaac #42 and Luna, though this scenario entails that neither Isaac nor Luna was a parent of Moses #46 - that is David/Diogo with some other wife (perhaps an older sister of Luna) fathered Moses #46, and that Isaac married the widow but later married Luna. Moses #46 went to Amsterdam in 1649 (ref 105 as updated in 2016), so perhaps the new Moses #1585 compensated both step-parents on the departure of the old! And of course Gracia's Curacao bequest to 'David son of Moses' no doubt better fits David being a nephew rather than the son of a cousin as he would have been if Moses #1585 had been placed with Daniel and Mira. Moses #1585 would have travelled to Surinam around 1670 from Amsterdam (via Barbados probably) not Livorno since Isaac arrived in Amsterdam from Livorno by 1662 when the new Moses was only about 12. Though the known son of Moses #1585 was David (not Isaac) this may reflect only the loss of his first son in Surinam and the name of the father-in-law. Thus it seems that the natural parents of Aaron #376 (see note 9), Moses #46, Jacob #1388 (see note 1 above) and Gracia (see note 12) may not have been both Isaac #42 and Luna #1391. Gracia may have had Isaac as a father as suggested above but we query (as shown in the chart) whether Luna was her mother. The long gestational span of the family - from the early 1620s to the mid 1640s - suggests Luna may have been somewhat younger than David's wife.
11. The first (and eminent) London Moses Baruh Lousada #46 who is shown in the chart above with his merchant name Antonio Louzada, was shown at the head of both the English Baruh Lousada and Barrow family trees. These claims were each highly dubious because of their complete disregard of the Jamaican origin of the later Baruh Lousadas on the one hand, and the Barbados origin of the Barrows on the other hand. The number of children of Moses #46 was given incorrectly and the literature did not help. He was not a grandfather of the key Lousada ancestor Emanuel #41 - he was an uncle. Emanuel's father was Aaron #376 of Barbados, the brother of Moses Baruh Lousada #46. The Jamaican Jacob #380 was not a son of David #44; rather he was the third son of Aaron. The Barrow family tree impossibly makes Moses #46 the father of Simon Barrow of Barbados who was born 12 years too late for that! It also misses the fact that the Lousada name was already held by Moses #46 - he did not need to marry a fictitious Senorita Lousada for his offspring to acquire it! Fenneke Scheltens-Louzada was able to provide a genealogy of the Surinam Baruch Louzadas going back to 1674 but this also required clarification before 1740, for it originated with a Moses Baruch Louzada whose birthplace was unknown as was his place of death. Curiously, and in analogy with the errors made in the English Baruh Lousada and Barrow family trees, this first Moses was thought to be family head. We modified Fenneke's Surinam Lousada family tree to link it with the Curacao Baruch Lousadas, thereby suggesting where the first Surinam Moses came from (from Amsterdam though born in Livorno) and where he died (Curacao). In this we also show the suggested actual ancestry of the surviving Surinam Baruch Lousadas who thus descend from David #44 not from Moses #1585.
12. Gracia was known (ref 5) in Barbados as the wife of the sugar expert David Raphael Mercado from a family forced to leave Dutch Brazil in 1654 and which by the end of 1655 had settled in Barbados. Where the marriage took place is not known, but it may have taken place in the 1949-54 period while Moses #46 was present in Amsterdam. She may have married therefore in her late teens, putting her date of birth in the 1635-40 period, so it is hard to judge whether her father was David or Isaac, and who her mother was. We have noted that the Mercado family also had marriages with the Den Haag Louzadas, which reflects the probability that the Den Haag Louzadas were Baruch Lousadas but left Iberia separately. Probably Gracia arrived in Barbados before her brothers Abraham, Aaron and David. She spent the last phase of her life in Curacao and it was her bequest to David son of Moses which enabled us to infer the move to Curacao of the first Surinam Baruch Lousadas. Her Curacao (de Caceres) second (?) husband was of a family linked to Baruch Spinosa and the resettlement of Jews in England. The future link with the Curacao de Caceres family may have come about as a result of Simon and Benjamin de Caceres being in Barbados in the 1646-53 period (ref 123 pp 396-7).
13. David #44 became the main income generator in Amsterdam after the death of his father and brother Jacob. He travelled back-and-forth to Barbados from Amsterdam - after living there in the early 1660s he returned at least twice. And it was our detailed examination of the linkage of the Barbados Baruch Lousadas with those of Surinam and Curacao which further highlights the importance of David #44. His son Jacob #711 died in Barbados, his son Moses #67 became a fixture in London, but David #44 also had 2 offspring who lived in Curacao - Rebecca Hannah who married Abraham Henriquez Moron and Isaac #1297 his eldest son whose energy and community service echoed those of his father. It was principally Isaac's grandson Isaac who re-established the Baruch Lousada line in Surinam. Illustrating the way marriage of first cousins bound Jewish families together, Isaac and Solomon - sons of David #44 - respectively married a daughter of Jacob #1388 and a daughter of Moses #46. As shown in the chart we suggest that Isaac #42 of Amsterdam and Livorno was a common ancestor of the surviving Surinam Baruch Louzadas and the first Moses of Surinam, but not the Jamaican/English Baruh Lousadas nor Moses #46 (who was probably a stepson and even a nephew of Isaac #42) nor Moses #1419 of London (who was probably a brother of Isaac #42).