Curacao and the connection between the current-day English Lousadas and the Dutch Louzadas

After WW2 there was occasional contact between the 2 family branches and around 1960 a reunion in Portugal was held (see note 1 below). There was reason (see note 2) to think a connection existed but the reunion did not provide the answer. More recent contact (culminating in a meeting) has been successful as shown in the chart. Helpfully a genealogy of the Surinam Louzadas was contributed by Fenneke Louzada-Scheltens (see note 11 below), and the people in grey (see chart) appear at the head of it. The chart shows how these people are linked with the Barbados and Amsterdam Baruch Lousadas, making use of additional details obtained from Curacao and Surinam sources (see note 12 below) and our parallel work (see note 13 below). Our breakthrough lay in perceiving a fundamental role of Curacao in this story, despite the omission of Curacao from the contributed genealogy. Curacao was the most obvious source of information to explain the missing links in the contributed Surinam genealogy, for there was a close historic tie between the 2 WIC colonies, and so it proved.

 Thus, we could establish that Moses #1585, the first Surinam Baruch Lousada, and his son David #1586 travelled to Curacao from Surinam in the 1674-95 period (see note 8 below) for we found them in the 1700 Curacao will of Gracia de Caceres (see notes 5 and 6 below). Moses was the husband of Sarah Lopes Henriques, and he became a senior agent for the WIC in Curacao around 1720 (see here), dying in Curacao in 1724. Finding the father of David #1528 was a little harder, but we needed to do this as there is reason to believe that David #1586 was not the father despite what the contributed genealogy told us (see note 7 below). We know that Isaac #1297, oldest son of David #44 of Amsterdam, spent time in Curacao (see note 7 below). His first son would have been named David after the paternal grandfather and would have been born around 1700 as his parents were married in mid-1696 (see note 15 below). Isaac #1297 was thus the obvious choice for father of the younger David - though as David was born 'around 1700' in Surinam, we were forced to then conclude that Isaac must have spent two years or so in Surinam before taking up official community duties in Curacao around 1700. Isaac later re-appeared in Amsterdam in 1714 where he emulated his father David #44 by carrying out duties for DOTAR, but died in Curacao in 1721. Later, David emulated his father Isaac as Parnas de Hebrah in Curacao (see note 7 below). Barbados and Amsterdam data (see note 3 below) enabled us to show that considerable time was spent in Surinam by David #612 of Barbados, perhaps overlapping with Abraham #1587 of Curacao who spent a period in Surinam around 1727 (see note 9 below). Isaac #1582 certainly lived in Paramaribo for a period (see note 9 below) but we are not certain he stayed there and no grave is known in either Curacao or Surinam.

The Baruch Lousada presence in Surinam extended well beyond these temporary stays. Isaac #1568 migrated permanently from Curacao, and Jacob #1594 probably did likewise for his son Moses was born in Surinam. Emile and Karin Louzada descend from the 1746 marriage in Surinam (probably in Jodensavanne) of Isaac #1568 and Roza Hana Robles de Medina #2163 and then via the 8 Jun 1856 marriage in Paramaribo of Isaak Jacques Baruch Lousada Castilho #2123 and Selly de Samuel Robles de Medina #2124. Isaak dropped his father's surname for reasons we have yet to discover (but see note 14 below). Isaak was a great-great-grandson of Isaac #1568, and a great-great-grandfather of Emile. In summary, the English Lousadas and the Dutch Louzadas descend from different sons of Amador de Lousada of Vinhais - the Dutch Louzadas descended from Isaac #42 of Livorno and Amsterdam, and the English Lousadas from David Lousada who may not have left Iberia but who was the father of Aaron #376 of Barbados. All the family branches having a Surinam presence are summarised in note 17 below.

 

Notes:

  1. This was almost certainly organized by Hans Louzada 1917-1998 #2043, while Marion Irene Keyser nee Lousada 1917-2000 #246 planned to attend. Around 1960 she hosted a visit from Australia by Winton Harman Lousada 1918-2017 #494 at her house in Eaton Square. She invited him to the reunion but he could not attend. The visit followed Winton meeting Flora - Hans' wife - on a KLM flight around 1957. Hans became a senior executive of KLM after WW2 and spent time in England during WW2. Hans Lousada visited Lousada probably in the 1960s and the town presumably was on the itinerary for the reunion visit. Later Peter Lousada as a young businessman met the older Hans Lousada in Teheran in the 1980s.

  2. The English Baruh Lousadas and the Surinam Louzadas both use the 'Baruch' first surname and we note the interchangeability of 's' and 'z' in Portuguese.

  3. Ton Tielen (ref 112) pointed us to a deed of 20 Dec 1738 by which David Baruh Lousada #612 of Barbados authorizes the 'church wardens' of Surinam to manage his Surinam assets. The deed was written in English and was witnessed by a person whom we identify as his nephew Jeremiah Baruh Lousada #1189 of Barbados. The deed was part of the inheritance arrangements which were ratified in his will (see ref 224). David's wife was Rebecca Mirandella - a name which existed in Surinam (ref 169). David was born and died in Barbados despite spending time in London and Surinam. David's will reveals a daughter (see note 4).

  4. The probable daughter Rachel of David #612 received an inheritance in her father's will (see ref 224) as Rachel Aboab of Curacao.

  5. Gracia de Caceres #43 of Curacao was formerly Gracia de Mercado nee Baruch Lousada of Barbados. In Gracia's 1700 Curacao will (a summary extract appears in ref 113 p194) is a bequest to a David son of Moses. In ref 287 there is such a person but 2 Davids and 2 people named Moses appear in Curacao records and we can deduce which of them appear in Gracia's will. Thus David the younger of Surinam was born around 1700; this was the year that Gracia wrote her will and even if Gracia was aware of the newborn David, it seems unlikely that in those days of high infant mortality and epidemics of tropical diseases, a bequest would be made to a newborn. Therefore Gracia referred to the older David of Curacao. But who was the father of the older David - for there were 2 Moses Baruch Lousadas of Curacao - one who died in 1724 and the other in 1745? It is unlikely that the first Moses of Surinam - who was born around 1650 according to ref 287 - died in 1745 for 95 was an unlikely age to reach. Thus we infer that Gracia's will identifies the first Baruch Lousada of Surinam, who fathered the older David in Surinam in 1674, with the older Moses of Curacao. This is confirmed by grave location - for when Gracia died in 1707 she was placed in grave #1665; when Moses' wife Sarah died in 1715 she was placed in grave #1663 and when Moses died in 1724 he was placed in grave #1662. The location of these graves may be found on the map between pages 489 and 493 of ref 113. We note that a Moses B(aruch) Louzada was on a 1671 Surinam list but no Baruch Lousada was on a 1695 Surinam list (see note 10); that is - as Gracia's will implied - the elder David #1586 and his father Moses #1585 had left Surinam for Curacao. The younger Moses of Curacao we identify as the first son of the older David, being named after the paternal grandfather. In note 7 we identify the younger David as the son of Isaac #1297. The absence of descendants of her full brother David #44 in Gracia's will is perhaps an unfortunate relic of the family dispute resolved in 1699 (see note 6 below), for Gracia no doubt identified with the Barbados faction, and not with the Amsterdam faction led by her brother David #44. In any event, David's son Isaac #1297 may only have arrived in Curacao after Gracia wrote her will.

  6. Gracia appears as 'Grasia de Mercado' on p530 of ref 113 and was 'sister' to Aaron #376, David #44 and Abraham #45 of Barbados as ref 5 makes clear. Gracia was probably only a step-sister or half-sister as well as a cousin of Aaron #376. However Moses was undoubtedly a younger full brother of David #44 as we deduce from the 1699 family settlement, and probably Gracia was a full sibling of Moses #1585 as well (see note 5 above for their Curacao grave proximity). That is, Gracia's father was Isaac #42.

  7. Rebecca Hannah (daughter of David #44) married Abraham Henriques Moron of Curacao around 1685 (see descendants of David Baruch Louzada). She had a Curacao niece named Clara who was a daughter of Isaac (ref 113 p146) thus confirming that Isaac was a brother of Rebecca Hannah. Isaac is shown in ref 40 p766 as a Curacao taxpayer (with wife and 2 children) for 1702 and 1707. From ref 113 p57, we learn that 'Ishac Barugh Louzada' was Parnas de Hebrah (administrator of burials) in the Curacao Jewish community for the 1699-1700 Jewish year, whilst David Barugh Louzada in the 1732-3 Jewish year filled the same role. David the younger we learn from ref 287 was born in Surinam around 1700 but Abraham #1587 who was also born around 1700 was not shown in ref 287 as having been born in Surinam, and hence we infer that David the younger and Abraham had different parents (ref 287 has David the elder as the common parent). We do not dispute that Abraham #1587 was the son of David #1586, but we do query whether the younger David had the same name as his father. We thus suggest that Isaac #1297 was the father of the younger David with the other child being Clara. We show no evidence for the death of David the younger - despite him being parnas for burials in Curacao! We did take into account another view (see note 16 below).

  8. That is, after the 1674 birth in Surinam of David #1586, and before the 1695 list - and in any case before 'about 1700' when Abraham #1587 was born outside Surinam. For the lists see note 10 below.

  9. We suggest Abraham was born in Curacao, as ref 287 does not give him a Surinam birth. He was in Curacao in 1742 when he married Abigail Nunes da Costa. There are 3 Curacao graves of the children of Abraham dated 1731 (twice!) and 1737 but his surviving son Isaac was born in Surinam in 1727. He must have had an earlier marriage but we have not been able to point to his first wife's grave. Many details of his life in Curacao were obtained from ref 40 where he was a shipowner in 1744 and then a licensed broker in 1759. In 1752, he appears to have shipped tobacco to Amsterdam where his distant relative by marriage Isaac Orobio de Castro did not accept the bottomry charge (ref 175 #2). His burial location is unknown. His son Isaac married in Curacao around 1747 but he soon moved to Surinam where his son Abraham born in 1747 died as an infant in 1748. Isaac appeared in Paramaribo in 1749 (ref 175 #7) as a merchant and later lost another young son also named Abraham.

  10. The 1671 and 1695 lists can be found in ref 169 and the source material from which they were found.

  11. See ref 287 for the contributed genealogy and our critique of it. The contributed genealogy shows how the Dutch Louzadas descend from the Surinam Louzadas. Resulting from our critique, the chart shows 2 changes we made to the contributed genealogy - David #1528 is shown as the son of Isaac #1297 rather than the son of David #1586, and Abraham #2165 is given as the son of Isaac #1582 rather than of Isaac #1568.

  12. The key sources of data on the early Jews of Curacao (ref 40 and 113) gave us the information we needed to integrate the contributed genealogy into our data on the broader family. Curacao was the obvious place to look for the births and deaths which so strikingly do not appear in ref 287. While it seemed probable that the immediate origin of Moses #1585 was Amsterdam perhaps via Barbados (with a birth in Livorno), it was most curious that David #1586 should have been born in Surinam but not died there, and neither did his father Moses die in Surinam. It was curious that David #1528 should have been born in Surinam but not Abraham #1587 yet they were born at the same time and were stated by ref 287 to be brothers. It was curious that Isaac #1568 should have been born elsewhere but died in Surinam. We were able to solve these mysteries as shown in the chart ie David #1586 and his father Moses died in Curacao, David #1528 and Abraham were not brothers, and Isaac #1568 must have been born in Curacao. We also show in the chart the circa 1747 Curacao marriage of 'Isaac de Abraham' to 'Esther de David' recorded in ref 40 vol2 pp931-2. We suggest that Esther was a daughter of the younger David rather than the elder David (in which case she would have been Isaac's aunt!). Though Isaac #1297 lost his first wife Rebecca he married Esther da Motta in Curacao around 1705 (ref 40 vol2 pp931-2). David was born in Surinam and hence his mother was Rebecca, so Esther da Motta was not the paternal grandmother but David may have named his daughter to honour his step-mother. In any case, the youthful marriage would have united the family branches in preparation for a concerted move to Surinam (perhaps such a move was partly in response to turmoil in the Jewish community of Curacao at this time - see ref 177); Isaac #1568 going to Jodensavanne and his younger brother-in-law Isaac #1582 going to Paramaribo where he appeared as a merchant (see note 9 above). The younger Moses of Curacao #658 we show as a son of David #1586, presumably born in Curacao like his brother Abraham (but before Abraham since Moses was evidently a first son named after the paternal grandfather) - neither birth is shown by ref 287 as being in Surinam and Moses does not appear at all in ref 287 (presumably because he did not have Surinam descendants as his brother Abraham did). Surinam gravestone data (ref 125) also helped overcome other gaps in ref 287. Thus the Surinam birth of Abraham #2165 is given in ref 287, but not his death. However ref 125 #300 and #307 give 2 deaths in childhood of Abraham son of Isaac - the earlier of which presumably relates to Abraham #2165 and the later of which relates to a later child of the same name whose birth was not captured by ref 287.

  13. This followed our elucidation of the Barbados origin of the Jamaican Baruch Lousadas which meant that the English Baruch Lousadas could be traced to Barbados, our linking of that key Lousada in the 1659-99 period David #44 of Livorno, Barbados and Amsterdam with his younger brother Moses #1585, our study of the Curacao Baruch Louzadas, and our linking of Amador de Lousada with the dispersal from Livorno. Thus Livorno, Barbados, Curacao and of course Amsterdam are brought into the story which goes back to Portugal.

  14. Perhaps it was related to the fact that in 1848 the Lousada Dukes commenced their assumption of the title of the Duque de Losada; after all, a Lousada crest was used in Surinam! Isaak who married in 1856 may have seemed a better catch by claiming a noble link.

  15. See ref 96 ptII #37 - probably the marriage of Isaac son of David and Rebecca daughter of Jacob took place in Amsterdam though it was recorded in London. Isaac's Surinam visit suggested by us can be seen as an effort to restore the family's commercial links to Surinam which had weakened after the departure of David the elder and his father; the death of his father David #44 in late 1699 probably added to the importance of Isaac's mission.

  16. We note here that while ref 113 p57 links Isaac the Parnas de Hebrah with the 1721 grave of Isaac (C1736 on p531) and we have no difficulty associating both records with Isaac #1297, ref 113 p58 tentatively links David the Parnas de Hebrah with the 1747 grave of David (C1546 on p527). We note that grave C1546 is adjacent to his widow Hannah in C1547 who died 38 years later, and we know David son of Moses married Hannah Israel in 1729 (ref 40 vol2 p931-2). We thus link the 1747 death with David the elder (see chart). We suggest that it was family tradition that made David the younger follow his father Isaac as Parnas de Hebrah and thus we reject the tentative suggestion of ref 113 that the 1732 Parnas de Hebrah was David the elder. We note that the David the elder was the owner of the Bloempot plantation discussed here. However we are left uncertain as to which David ref 40 p788 shows to have been as an elder of the community (parnas) in 1737, and ref 40 p1028 shows to have failed to sign in 1746 a declaration supporting community policy on enforcement of ketubots. Perhaps David the younger became a parnassim in 1737, having demonstrated his worth as Parnas de Hebrah, whilst it was an elderly David who was too short-tempered or forgetful to sign an arguably unnecessary document!

  17. The lines of Baruch Louzadas represented in Surinam were:  

    1. David #612 was long-term presence but returned to Barbados (see note 3 above). His daughter went to Curacao (see note 4 above).

    2. Moses #1585 preceded David #612 in Surinam but retreated to Curacao. His grandson Abraham produced Surinam descendants - see note 3 (below). Moses came to Surinam from Amsterdam around 1671 probably via Barbados.

    3. Abraham #1587 was an active Curacao merchant (see note 9 above) - but his son Isaac #1582 was born in Surinam according to ref 287 so Abraham must have been there as a young man. Isaac later moved to Surinam from Curacao in the mid-1700s where a grandson Abraham was born in Paramaribo in 1747. This grandson died young, as did a later child with the same name.

    4. David #1528 was born in Surinam but did not return. His son Isaac #1568 moved to Surinam as an adult. Isaac #1568 married Roza Hana Robles de Medina there and their family became the principal enduring Baruch Lousada presence in Surinam. And we note in passing that there is doubt around the lifespan of David #2187, first son of Isaac #1568, who is fulsomely praised in ref 308 - David's birthdate is questionable and possibly his death date also. For in ref 287 his birthdate (of 31 Dec 1749) clashes with that of his sister Abigail (of 2 Feb 1750). David's death date is reported by ref 287 as 20 Apr 1825 which we convert to 2 Iyar 5585 (a date supported by the 2 Iyar 1825(!) date reported by ref 308) but this conflicts with 2 Iyar 5588 (= 16 Apr 1828) reported by ref 125. A gravestone transcription error (confusion of 5 with 8) appears to have been made!

    5. In the next generation Moses followed his uncle Isaac #1568 in marrying a Robles de Medina in Surinam. But it is clear that 2 of the children shown as his in ref 287 were adopted - they were probably son and daughter of a 2nd cousin for judging from their names they were almost certainly grand-children of Isaac #1568 and Roza Hana Robles de Medina. Leaving these 2 children to one side, the next oldest son is given the full name of the maternal grandfather (ie surname as well as forename!); and of course the child bearing the name of the paternal grandfather Jacob is missing presumably having died in infancy.