The Montefiore Fountain (ref 137) in the Montefiore Gardens in Bridgetown was built by John Montefiore in memory of his father John Castello Montefiore #869 1794-1854, a leading merchant whose great-great-great-grandson James Greener has contributed to this website. The origin of John Castello Montefiore is discussed in note 4 below.

 

The Nidhe Israel Synagogue in Bridgetown, named to reflect the 'scattered of Israel'. This building was commenced around 1654 (see note 26). The Synagogue was destroyed in the hurricane of 1831, rebuilt but deconsecrated in 1929; nearby is a museum (which was visited by Peter Lousada in 2016). Errol Barrow, the first PM of independent Barbados stated that he was descended from the local Baruch Lousadas, whom we know left wealthy mulatto descendants.

  Because of hostilities with the Dutch, Cromwell moved to control colonial trade with the Navigation Acts of the 1650s. For the Dutch Sephardim it then became important to establish an offshoot community in London so that Barbados ships docked in England with the cargo owned by Englishmen. The London offshoot community quickly became an essential part of the Amsterdam/Barbados trade.

 

1659 saw a Baruch Lousada arrive in Barbados

The Portuguese recapture of Dutch Brazil was completed in 1654, and it led to a flurry of Dutch colonization efforts, in which the Jews and Dutch displaced from Brazil took part. This was an era of English and Dutch conflict, which was only resolved with the 1667 Treaty of Breda, from which time the Dutch colonies of Curacao and Surinam successfully evolved with much Jewish involvement, while Barbados remained in English hands. The English had disrupted the Dutch colonization ventures, as did the French; and though an emerging source of sugar like Barbados seemed an easy way for Dutch Jews to compensate for the 1654 disaster, there was a need for representation in London (to circumvent the Navigation Acts). In this sense, the involvement of Dutch Jews in Barbados was interdependent with the Jewish resettlement of England. Though both Cromwell and Charles 2 developed pro-Jewish attitudes through contact with Dutch Jews, readmission was not a straightforward manoeuvre, but one in which Moses #46 found himself close to the forefront (for the reason set out in note 30 below). The Treaty of Breda paved the way for William of Orange to occupy the English throne in 1689, and England then came to represent even greater opportunities for the Dutch Jews (see note 30 below). The Treaty of Breda did not quite end the difficulties of the Dutch Jews, for because of it the Dutch lost New York to the English, and thus in the American Revolution the local Jews - some by then Anglicised - were torn between sympathy for the Loyalists and sympathy for the 13 colonies. 

Aaron #376 reached Barbados in 1659 (see note 10 below), and then Moses #46 reached London by 1660 where he was prominent in efforts to secure the position of Jews against a reaction to their presence. In 1662 the Baruch Lousadas came to live permanently in Amsterdam, both Isaac #42 (from Livorno see note 22 below) and Jacob #1388 (from London). Aaron #376 was not endenized until 20 Aug 1675 (ref 42 #79) but became a wealthy and leading Bridgetown merchant, no doubt a vital part of the family business (though he felt under-appreciated - see note 10 below). He and Abraham #45 were both plantation owners for a period (see note 29 below). David #44 was in Barbados for less than a decade - he was endenized on 18 Apr 1664 (ref 42 #39), his daughter Rebecca (see note 17 below) was born there in 1667, but he lived in Amsterdam from 1672. He returned for a short period around 1680, and again after Aaron died (about the last trip see note 13 below). David's brother Abraham #45 was endenized on 20 Apr 1672 (ref 42 #69) and lived in Speightstown (see note 18 below) before appearing in London in 1695. Abraham #45 may have briefly overlapped in Barbados with David #44, but in effect Abraham replaced David in Barbados. The transition of the Baruch Lousadas from Iberia to plantation ownership in Barbados seems an extraordinarily large step (see note 29 below), made explicable only if they had help. There are clues about this, one revolving around the marriage of Gracia Baruch Lousada to David Raphael de Mercado (see note 28 below). They lived near Bridgetown in the Parish of St Michaels. The marriage appears to have occurred after the Mercado move to Barbados in 1655, for Gracia was not covered by the pass the Mercados received from Cromwell. The dowry must have been largely in kind, for the Baruch Lousadas seem to have been the poor relations amongst their cluster of linked families of the Portuguese region of Villaflor around 1600. It is easy to imagine that the efforts of the 3 brothers (see note 27 below) formed part of Gracia's dowry, but David #44 may also have had a further role. His 1st wife was Hannah Montezinos, and this marriage (see note 20 below) may have gained David favour with the Montezinos family, whose connection to Rouen created a link to the Atlantic trading theatre, in which news of Dutch Brazil and the opportunity in Barbados no doubt circulated. Whether the Mercado link came about because of this Rouen connection is not known (but see note 19 below). The Mercado liaison successfully built the Baruch Lousadas into the growing Barbados sugar trade. After the death of her husband in 1685, Gracia carried on David's business (see note 11), and after the death of Aaron in 1695 (see note 12 below) she also kept her brother's business going until the death of her sister-in-law (ref 207 PTI p8) in 1703. Gracia retired to Curacao (see note 17 below). 

Around 1705 four Baruch Lousada siblings went to Jamaica. The rise of Jamaica's economic fortunes - from 1720 Jamaica outstripped Barbados as a sugar producer - was no doubt a key factor in this partial re-location. The 4 who re-located were the youngest children of Aaron Baruh Louzada #376, for the oldest siblings David #612 and Solomon #712 remained in Barbados. Solomon became the founder of the enduring Baruch Lousadas of Barbados while David was heavily involved with Surinam trade, leaving property there when he died on Barbados in 1741, and perhaps travelled to London as well (see note 21). In Jamaica, Jacob #380 and Emanuel #41 married Lamego daughters and this inter alia gave rise to the successful and enduring line of English Lousadas. Our Lamego discussion however suggests that Solomon may also have played an important additional ancestral role - for it seems that his 1st daughter Rachel may have been the last wife of Isaac Lamego #38, who was a brother-in-law of Emanuel #41 and Jacob #380; Rachel thus became a key ancestor of the English Baruh Lousadas, all of the English Mocattas, and all those English Montefiores descending from Mocatta marriages. We have charted the 4 generations of Baruh Louzadas of Barbados.

The Barrow and Montefiore arrival in Barbados

Some Baruch Lousadas had remained in Livorno after 1660 - see note 6 below - and from this it seems the Barrows originated in the form of our key ancestor Simon Barrow of Barbados 1709-1801. The year of Simon Barrow's travel to Barbados is unknown but it was certainly before 1773 when his wife Bailah Montefiore died in Barbados and probably before 1759 (see note 14 below). Conceivably Simon Barrow and his sister (with respective spouses) travelled to London in the wake of the Francos who around 1748 led an influx of Italian Jews to London including the Levy Sonsinos who like the Francos were in the coral and diamond trade (which may have been a linking factor in Livorno with the family of Simon Barrow one of whom - Baron Lyon de Symons - was a jeweller). In 1752 Moses Vita Montefiore settled in England after several preparatory visits from Livorno. Then - presumably after acquiring passes - Simon Barrow with his sister and their spouses proceeded to Barbados perhaps so that the Montefiores might be represented there by in-laws (see note 16 below) well before the offspring of Moses Vita Montefiore were of an age (see note 23 below). An Amsterdam connection was established as Isaac Levi the brother-in-law of Simon Barrow went there after a period in Barbados but we do not know when he left Barbados. Isaac's son Abraham also appeared in Amsterdam but it seems 2 other sons Jacob and Joseph were married in Barbados (both to Eve the youngest known daughter of Simon Barrow). There is also an Australian dimension to this Barbados Montefiore story (see note 7 below).

The 5th son of Moses Vita Montefiore was Eliezer 1761-1837, and he married Judith Joseph Levi, a Barrow relative, in Bridgetown in 1797 (see note 1 below). Though Bailah died in 1773 when Eliezer was 12 he had by then many Barrow relatives in Barbados. Perhaps significantly one of them came to London, for in 1785 at Bevis Marks, Jacob Barrow (his probable 1st cousin) married Jael Nunes (see note 25 below). Perhaps also influential was Eliezer's sister Rachel marrying Moses Nunes Castello of Barbados at Bevis Marks in 1788 (see note 2 below). Rachel's time in Barbados overlapped briefly with Eliezer's - he arrived before 1794 (see note 4 below). John Castello Montefiore was born in 1794 (see note 3 below) but seems not to have been the son of Rachel and Moses nor of Judith and Eliezer (but Eliezer before his 1797 marriage to Judith is the probable father - see note 4 below). John Castello Montefiore became prominent in Barbados (see memorial fountain above). 

We have charted the Barbados Baruch Lousada links with the Massiah family (see note 24 below), for this is how the Barrows regenerated their relationship with the Baruch Lousadas, a relationship which was to prosper over the next half-century.

Notes:

1. Judith Joseph Levi married Eliezer Montefiore 1761-1837 #453 in Barbados and James Greener in his email of 3 Jan 2013 first gave us their marriage date as 5 July 1797 - from Townsend, Peter, ed ‘Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry’, 18th edition p506 and from ref 173 p454. He also pointed out that ref 110 p206 records Judith's tombstone at Mile End describing her as being a 'native of Barbadoes'. Later ref 132 not only confirmed the 5 July 1797 marriage date of Judith Joseph Levi but clarified her ancestry in that despite her name her father was Jacob Levi. Her Barbados birth was probably in 1776 and she died in London in 1836. (James Greener is thus not a Barrow descendant, as John Castello Montefiore who was born in 1794 obviously does not descend from the 1797 marriage of Eliezer and Judith). See note 3 for a further useful data resource. Judith Joseph Levi has sometimes (mistakenly) been referred to as Judith Barrow. It has then been suggested that Eliezer Montefiore married Judith Barrow before his 1797 marriage to Judith Joseph Levi and that this earlier (fictitious) marriage produced offspring. This theory is incorrect because no such Montefiore children appear in the Barrow wills - only the children of Judith Joseph Levi - and because the only available Judith Barrow was the aunt of Judith Joseph Levi and the aunt died unmarried in 1805 (see note 5 below). However it does seem that at least one pre-1797 child did otherwise emerge (see note 4 below).

2. See marriage #1256 in Bevis Marks Records 2. Rachel and Moses must have then soon travelled to Barbados for in late 1794 they prepared to leave Barbados with Elias Nunes Castello (ref 138), with Rachel given a power of attorney in Barbados thereby showing her return was anticipated. Where they went is unclear though their nephew the eldest son Moses born in 1798 to Eliezer and Judith went to St Thomas (ref 191). Neither parent can be found in ref 61 so perhaps Rachel's anticipated return (see ref 138) to Barbados was not permanent.

3. See ref 170 for a basic resource of Montefiore family data. In it there are several independent citations of the death of John Castello Montefiore aged 60 in 1854 - one of which is a newspaper report of his death of cholera. The other reference details his epitaph in Bridgetown. The claim in ref 38 that John Castello Montefiore became an Anglican in 1710 aged 20 is erroneous - he was 16 still of course rather late in life for baptism due no doubt to discrimination (see note 4 below).

4. Esther Montefiore - sister of Eliezer and Rachel - perhaps also married a Nunes Castello (Jacob who became known as James or John Nunn) but they cannot be found in Jewish records and probably converted quite early so their offspring probably carried the Nunn surname. However, neither this marriage nor that of Rachel Montefiore and Moses Nunes Castello seems to have been that which produced John Castello Montefiore. For as ref 181 points out, John Castello Montefiore was a well-known and wealthy free mulatto, as was his son John. It seems likely that the mother was a slave or a descendant of a slave of the Castello family, and that the father was Eliezer Montefiore #453 before his 1797 marriage. Such a liaison probably arose via contact with the Nunes Castellos via the previous Montefiore/Castello marriage(s), but then family pressure was brought to bear on Eliezer to marry within the family which he did in 1797 some 3 years after John Castello Montefiore was born! James Greener has seen a description of John Castello Montefiore in a codicil of the will of Eliezer Montefiore as a 'good friend', a description which may well obscure their true relationship for the sake of the family's feelings. This care and acceptance of an illegitimate child brings to mind the example of Eliezer's nephew Abraham Israel Montefiore #843 where a marriage (to Henrietta Rothschild) acceptable to the family was forced upon him in 1815 in place of an earlier marriage of his own choice. In this case the child of the rejected marriage later married Benjamin Mocatta #443. The identification of Eliezer Montefiore as the father of John Castello Montefiore is however not completely certain - for a younger brother Jacob Israel Montefiore 1773-1801 #874 came to Barbados with Eliezer but would have been a much younger father than Eliezer his brother!

5. See burial record #4390 of Bevis Marks Records 6.

6. We are inclined to accept that there was an early Barrow link to the Baruch Lousadas and we conclude that it must have occurred in a part of Italy in contact with Livorno where at least some of the Baruch Lousadas first went after leaving Iberia. That is, we think it likely that Simon Barrow's father Baruch married a Baruch Lousada in Italy around 1708. Simon Barrow #64, the original Barrow of our family was born in 1709, and as just suggested this must have been in Italy.

7. Joseph Barrow Montefiore and Jacob Barrow Montefiore who went on to play an important role in the early development of Australia were sons of Judith Joseph Levi of Barbados who was a first cousin of Simon Barrow of Bath; thus Joseph and Jacob were great-grandchildren of Simon Barrow of Barbados. Their sister, Esther Hannah Montefiore, then produced in Barbados two sons Eliezer 1820-94 and Jacob Levi Montefiore 1819-85 who also both entered Australian history a generation later than their uncles.

8. Drax bought a triple-roller sugar mill and copper cauldrons during his visit to Pernambuco, according to ref 172 p38.

9. There were 4 later Lousada/Mercado marriages at least 2 of which involve Baruch Lousadas (all 4 if as appears likely the Den Haag Louzadas are closely related to the Baruch Lousadas). Of particular interest was the Daniel Mercado/Sarah Baruch Louzada marriage of 1683 in Amsterdam where the groom was born in Genoa in 1659. Perhaps Genoa was a port receiving Brazilian sugar before the expulsion from Dutch Brazil, and perhaps the Mercados of Genoa had made contact with the Baruch Louzadas in nearby Livorno.

10. In ref 5 can be found a comment by Aaron Baruch Lousada #376 in connection with some unsigned family accounts for the year 1685 to the effect that he had then served 26 years of slavery for the family! The will extract from which this comment is taken can also be found here. Ref 207 PTI p8 very plausibly interprets Aaron's comment as grumpiness that the family accounts presented to him and left unsigned at the date of his 1693 will were unfair to him and his immediate family given his arduous and lengthy service in Barbados as compared with the more pleasant life he imagined his siblings were enjoying in London and Amsterdam. An alternative set of accounts was presented, and the dispute was finally settled in 1699. In this, Aaron's interests were represented by his London brother-in-law Isaac Gomez Henriques, the deceased Moses #46 was represented by his son Mordecai, while David #44's full brother Moses #1585 of Curacao also appears.

11. For 6 or 7 years, and perhaps even acquired a plantation - ref 5.

12. Clearly Aaron died between his will of 9 May 1693 and its proving on 3 Oct 1695. A conversion error obviously afflicted ref 61 #17 when converting the gravestone death date of 17 Tisri 5456 for it somehow comes up with a death date after the proving date! It is easy to calculate Aaron's date of death to have been 16 Sep 1695 taking care to apply the deduction of 10 days when converting a Gregorian date to a Julian date (the English date change occurred in 1752). Another transcription error afflicted ref 61 #17 in giving age at death of 25 - and because a very easy gravestone transcription error to make is to read a 7 as a 2 it seems that the most likely age at death was 75 meaning a birth probably in Madrid in 1620. Perhaps Aaron was the oldest son of his father David, and perhaps Amador (the father of David and Isaac) was also Aaron a name for which Amador may have been a convenient equivalent in 1540!

13. For the last trip he obtained a pass on 17 Apr 1696 (ref 182) for him and son (Jacob #711) and daughter-in-law Rebecca (as reported by ref 5). The date of this pass is consistent with the date of his brother Aaron's death being in late 1695. David's son Jacob #711 and his family are discussed here see note 6.

14. From ref 190 (last page) it is clear Joseph Barrow witnessed with Isaac Lindo the will of Judith Castello on 22 Aug 1759. Thus Joseph Barrow must have been in Barbados for at least a few years and must have known Isaac Lindo, who was part of a link between the Barrows and the Baruh Lousadas of Barbados. The only son of Bailah Montefiore we can date with certainty was Haim Barrow 1744-89; the first son Baruch Barrow must have been born before 1744, and Joseph Barrow must have been born between Baruch Barrow's birth date and 1744. Joseph Barrow must have been at least 18 in 1759, so was born before 1741, so Baruch Barrow may have been born in 1738 or 1739 with his parents marrying in 1737.

15. The Barbados travel pass issued by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, on 27 April 1655 to David Raphael de Mercado and his father, makes no mention of a wife Gracia (ref 5). Later passes (as shown in ref 182) do generally include all members of a party. This leaves unclear how Gracia got to Barbados and when her marriage took place. Perhaps she and her brothers got to Barbados unofficially, a situation that was rectified retrospectively with her marriage and the endenization of David #44 in 1664, Aaron #376 in 1676, and Abraham #45 in 1672 (ref 5).

16. We have considered whether 1720-73 #928 may have been a sister of Moses Vita Montefiore 1712-89 #445, but it is perhaps more likely that she belonged to a branch of the Montefiores that was closely connected to the Levy Sonsinos.

17. David's daughter Rebecca married Abraham Henriques Moron in about 1685 possibly in Barbados but she lived a married life in Curacao and died there in 1716 but her husband died in Amsterdam in 1718. Gracia followed her niece Rebecca to Curacao and married again becoming Gracia de Caceres and died there in 1707. In her will she left a bequest for 'David son of Moses', and we think this was Moses #1585, the first Baruch Lousada in Surinam, who later in Curacao acted as an envoy for the WIC as recounted by ref 21 p144. Rachel Aboab #1929 (the only apparent daughter of David #612) lived in Curacao. Rebecca's younger half-brother Isaac #1297 lived the last years of his life in Curacao after periods in Surinam and Amsterdam. Emile Louzada descends from Isaac #1568 who reached Surinam from Curacao before 1747; Isaac was grandson of Isaac #1297.

18. For some further historical detail on this the 2nd town of Barbados see ref 300 which supplements ref 5.

19. The wife of Aaron #376 was Rachel Gomez Henriques, whom he married around 1675 (judging by the 1677 birth of his 1st son). The Henriques name echoes the name Beatriz Henriques (whose Jewish name was Sarah Curiel), the wife of Antonio Rodrigues Lamego who arrived in Rouen from Portugal in 1618, and the original Rouen Lamego whose next generation was later represented in Madrid by Fernando Montezinos. A branch of the Mercado family was in Genoa at the same time the Baruch Lousadas were in Livorno, for Daniel Mercado #1527 was born there in 1659. In addition families headed by Jacob and Solomon Mercado are known in Livorno from 1645 and 1654 marriages (see ref 319 #92A and #227A respectively). Perhaps the Seville sons of Fernando Montezinos had trading links with the Mercados before their departure from Brazil, and subsequent information exchange between the Mercado, Montezinos and Baruch Lousada families in Livorno occurred in the 1650s (Livorno conversations being no doubt prompted by the Dutch efforts discussed in note 22). The French connection of the Montezinos family to the Lamegos of Rouen perhaps is manifested also in the background of Moses #46 of London who came from France; the link may show up also in the name of his business partner Jacob Gomes Serra ('Serra' being an occasional alias for the Montezinos family - see ref 336). But the Montezinos family tried many different ports in the first half of the 17th century, including La Rochelle Bayonne and Bordeaux, in addition to their link with Rouen. The Mercado and Montezinos families had both been in Hamburg.

20. The marriage with Hannah may have occurred just before David reached Barbados where he was first known in 1664. David was quite young, for he was born in 1640, and the marriage does not appear in Amsterdam or Livorno records. Perhaps when David #44 and Isaac #42 left Livorno on the way to Amsterdam they paused at Rouen, to discover that Aaron #376 was already in Barbados and that Moses #46 was intending to move to London. David may have married Hannah there, and then they may have taken Gracia to Barbados with the infant Jacob #711, but whether a Mercado marriage was in view for Gracia at the time is not clear. Though she was linked to a brother of Fernando Montezinos it is also important to note that we only know Hannah married a Montezinos - she may have been from another family and if she was a Mercado then this would suggest that the Barbados marriage of Gracia #45 to David Raphael de Mercado was arranged. Hannah must have died in Barbados though no grave is known, for David #44 married again after leaving Barbados.

21. The will of Aaron #376 refers to David going to London. The will also refers to first-born son David, meaning that the paternal grandfather was named David.

22. In Livorno, a few years after 1654, it was well known (see ref 21) that the Dutch were offering favourable terms for Jews to settle in their new Caribbean ventures of Tobago, Pomeroon and Cayenne, and it seems that the English learnt of this and tried to emulate the Dutch so as to better develop Surinam which was then in their hands. In addition the English, led by the Royalist Willoughbys operating from Barbados, disrupted the Dutch ventures and relocated their Jews - whether they were planters originally from Dutch Brazil, or whether they were financier/merchants - to Surinam. This messy struggle ended when the British reluctantly ceded Surinam to the Dutch in 1667 but the sought-after Surinam Jews mostly stayed on with the Dutch with only a few going to Barbados or Jamaica. The first of many Baruch Lousadas in Surinam (see here for an account of the various arrivals) was Moses #1585 who probably came from Amsterdam via Barbados, since his father Isaac #42 had left Livorno for Amsterdam by 1662 when Moses #1585 was about 12, though it is possible that he was first sent to one of the prospective Dutch colonies and ended up instead in Surinam as a teenager not entirely voluntarily. He was certainly in Surinam in 1671. We show him in our chart of the Baruch Lousada dispersal where we identify him as a full brother of David #44.

23. Ultimately 4 such Montefiore offspring made their way to Barbados, some marrying into families established there including the Barrows (once) and the Nunes Castellos (twice). Jacob Israel Montefiore 1773-1801 #874 probably accompanied Eliezer to Barbados probably before 1794 (see note 4) but died quite young there.

24. Through the Massiahs the newly-arrived Barrows achieved a close family link with the Baruch Lousadas of Barbados which grew into a much closer link in England. This Massiah link involved the Lindo, de Peza and the Burgos families of Barbados. The Valverde family arrival on Barbados from Dutch Brazil eventually led to another link between the Baruch Lousadas and the Barrows of Barbados. A socio-economic picture of the place of all these families in late 17th and 18th century Barbados can be found in ref  207 which with the help of Bridgetown property tax records greatly extends the pioneering work of Wilfred Samuel (ref 5).

25. As indicated in note 24, we suggest Jael Nunes had an early connection with the Barbados Baruch Lousadas.

26. For an account of the Synagogue's historical significance see ref 206 and for extracts from the Mahamad's minute book see ref 311.

27. Gracia was probably part of the 2nd cohort of children of Isaac #42 (and probably Luna #1791 was the 2nd wife), and thus a full sister of David #44, Abraham #45 and Moses #1585 (of Surinam and Curacao). She would have been no closer than a cousin of Aaron #376 who had a father named David (see note 21), and probably Moses #46 as well (because of the 2nd Moses we suggest Moses #46 was more likely to have been a son of David than Isaac and hence a brother of Aaron #376).

28. Among the Jews coming to Barbados were the Mercados, who in London in 1655 used the access that David Abravenel and Simon de Caceres had with Cromwell to secure a pass to Barbados, and they came to Barbados from London later in the year (refs 5 and 21 show just David and his father received a pass; in connection with passes issued 30 years later ref 182 appears to show all members of a party were included in the pass). Their remarkably prompt relocation to Barbados from Dutch Brazil confirms that they knew of the potential for sugar in Barbados - and indeed the early history of Barbados (as set out in ref 129) shows that the Barbados sugar pioneer James Drax visited Recife around 1640 to take advice on sugar from the Jewish planters there (see also note 8).The Mercados were not the only Jews appearing in Barbados who had a Dutch Brazil background, for other such families also appeared - especially the Valverdes and the Navarros with whom the Baruch Lousadas also had links. The Mercado link seems the most influential in explaining how the Baruch Lousadas got to Barbados. They were expert in sugar manufacture, for ref 5 reports that a patent monopoly for Barbados and the Caribbean was granted on 2 Jan 1664 for a new type of sugar mill invented by David de Mercado. A description of this invention, and the history of its exploitation, are yet to be written. David Raphael de Mercado was endenized in 1661, and again in 1678 (see ref 42).

29. It was not plantation ownership itself that was a big step, for the Dutch Brazil experience probably encouraged Jews into plantation ownership - ref 335 discusses the case of the Gabay plantation family in Jamaica, while the Jews made a great success of plantations in Surinam. The big step was sugar industry knowledge and of course - for poor relations - finance! Thus in Barbados Aaron #376 was a plantation owner around 1680 (ref 207 PTI p8), and Abraham may also have been a plantation owner (ref 207 PTI p7). David #44 appears to have left Barbados property in the hands of his stepson Jacob upon leaving Barbados around 1672 (see table dealing with property ownership 1679-80 in ref 207 PTI p5), but this was property in town.

30. Moses #46 had visited Amsterdam regularly since 1649 probably from France. Abraham #45 was a full cousin of the wealthy Abraham Israel Pereira #1628, and probably so too was Moses #46. Pereira was a supporter of Menasseh ben Israel, leader of the quest for readmission, who had been in communication with Cromwell since 1651. Later, after William of Orange became William 3 of England Dutch Jews, like close Baruch Lousada relative Jacob Israel Pereira #1765 of Den Haag and son of Abraham #1628, prospered.