The unknown Baruch Lousadas of Livorno - the evidence for whose existence lies in their Barrow, Levi Montezinos and Tunis descendants

The Barrow Family Tree and Cheesman (ref 33) exhibit a belief that the mother of Simon Barrow of Barbados was a Lousada. Cheesman even suggests that a brother of Simon Barrow of Barbados was named Lousada (not shown because there is no evidence for this), but in any case there was much subsequent use made of 'Lousada' as a forename in the Barrow family; we know of Major-General Lousada Barrow #225, Charles Lousada Thesiger Barrow #325 his son, Reginald Lousada Barrow #360, and Captain Hugh Lousada Barrow #301. Similarly Montefiore appeared also as a forename for Cecil Montefiore Barrow #333. However, none of this clarifies whether the Lousada refers to a Baruch Lousada.

Indirect evidence as set forth in the next paragraph suggests that Simon Barrow's Lousada mother was a Baruch Lousada. The father of such a Baruch Lousada would have remained in Livorno (see note 7 below) after his brothers/step-brothers/cousins Abraham, David, Aaron, and sister Gracia (to Barbados), brothers Moses and Jacob (to Amsterdam and London) and his parents (for Amsterdam) left Livorno by 1662. This unknown brother (perhaps named Jacob - see note 11 below) would have had a young family at the time his parents and siblings departed including a daughter who married Raphael Montezinos (see note 1 below). In addition, the Baruch Lousadas of Tunis originated with the remnant Baruch Lousadas of Livorno (see note 7). Thus, Baruch Lousadas were available in Livorno at the relevant time (but see note 2 which considers the other possible Lousadas especially the Levi Lousadas)

A hint of an early Barrow / Baruch Lousada link in Livorno lies in the Barrow move to Barbados during 1740-70. While there were no direct links in Barbados (but see note 9 below), once Jacob Barrow moved from Barbados to London by 1787, the link with the Baruch Lousadas was formalised in the Barrow & Lousada business accompanied by 2 Barrow/Baruh Lousada marriages. A further piece of indirect evidence is provided by the possibility that the Moritz Baruh who appeared in Hungary in the mid 1700s (see ref 31) was Moses bar Baruch (see note 8). From ref 31 we can see that a noble linkage via the Baruch Lousadas was assumed by the descendants of Moritz just as it was by the descendants of Simon (see note 10 for what we know of the noble Baruch Lousada ancestry). The descendants of Moritz (see note 5 below) presumably obtained their Baruch Lousada ancestry from the same Baruch Lousada mother as Simon and this is what our chart depicts.

Notes:

1. Ref 107 shows that David Baruch Louzada #44 had a (probable) grandniece Rebecca Montezinos of Livorno. She received Dotar grants in 1692 and 1700; David and his eldest son Isaac were at various times Gabay of Dotar in Amsterdam. The mother of Rebecca Montezinos was evidently a Baruch Lousada, and thus had a Baruch Lousada father. There is the possibility that Isaac Levi (who appeared in Amsterdam around 1700-10), brother-in-law of Simon Barrow, travelled to Barbados with him and their respective wives. Perhaps he was a Levi Montezinos, even a grandson of Raphael Montezinos of Livorno, and the father of Jacob and Joseph Levi of Barbados.

2. We can not demonstrate with complete certainty that of the 5 families we know bore the 'Lousada' name in the 100 year period around 1700 it was the Baruch Lousadas that provided the Barrows with a Lousada ancestor in Livorno. Certainly we can rule out 3 of them. The NY Lousadas do not appear to have come from Livorno for in London circumcision was required whereas Livorno had a fully functioning Jewish community. The Den Haag Louzadas do not appear to have been in Livorno - they had a Venice connection (but were probably Baruch Lousadas). The Lumbroso Lousadas do not appear in Livorno records after 1652. It is much more difficult to assess the Levi Lousadas. They remained in Livorno (with one appearing in Amsterdam and others in Tunis) throughout the 18th century. Of course they too appear to be closely related to the Baruch Lousadas. They seemed to have had Mendes ancestry in common and furthermore it seems likely there was marriage of cousins in Livorno (Abraham Levi Lousada was an uncle of Isaac #42 and Isaac was living in his house in 1641 and 1642. Isaac was probably new to Livorno at that time for the only earlier date we have is the birth of David #44 in 1640. Isaac appears to have become the husband of Luna after the death of his brother David who was the natural father of Aaron #376 who was possibly born in 1620 and probably Moses #46 who was possibly born in 1624 both perhaps in Spain). Against the Levi Lousadas is that in 1686 Abraham and Jacob Levi Lousada appear as bullion workers in Livorno (ref 175), which is a field which does not seem to have been occupied by the Baruch Lousadas.

3. Simon Barrow of Barbados was born about a century later than the emergence of the Baruch Lousadas in Livorno, and on this basis those who have sought to represent his parents' marriage as the origin of the Baruch Lousadas are mistaken. Iberian naming tradition certainly forms double surnames by putting the father's surname ahead of the mother's, but there is no plausible way to invoke that tradition here since 'Baruch' was not used as a surname by the Barrows until around 1750 when 'Simon son of Baruch' became 'Simon Barrow' in Barbados. Before then 'Baruch' for the Barrows was simply a Jewish patronymic as used before surnames became obligatory elsewhere in Europe. Admittedly some confusion has arisen on this point because the Baruch Lousadas in London and Barbados, almost 100 years before Simon bar Baruch became Simon Barrow in Barbados, did use Baruch or Barrow as a single surname for some purposes. The Barrow Family Tree was written in ignorance of the fact that Moses Barrow of London was Moses Baruh Lousada and therefore it did not need to invoke a mysterious wife Senorita Lousada to introduce Baruch Lousada ancestry into Barrow genealogy - her husband already had this ancestry! - and the real admixture of Barrow and Baruch Lousada ancestors took place 2 generations later as the chart shows! In any event we now consider that Moses married a Henriques Faro (twice).

4. Our suggestion that the Barrows had an earlier relationship with the Pressburgs than the 1808 marriage of Tryphena Esther Lyon de Symons and Simon Barrow of Bath derives partial support from our chart. We observe that the naming of Simon Barrow of Barbados would not have been possible under Ashkenasi custom (for his suggested grandfather named Simon was still alive in 1709) and that something eg a Sephardic wife in a Sephardic milieu must have created the circumstances for this.

5. The Hungarian descendants of Moritz Baruh took seriously their possible linkage to the Spanish 'de Losada' nobility. However their use of the English terminology 'Losada y Lousada' suggests mimicry, and of course the title of Duque de Losada was adopted not by the remnant Livorno branch of the Baruch Lousadas but by the Jamaican branch. It does appear in ref 31 that there may have been some clearer linkage to Spanish and Imperial nobility other than to the Duque de Losada. 

6. The location of the Ashkenasi Baruch and his son Simon in Livorno must have seemed increasingly unsuitable as the Sephardim relocated to London and Amsterdam to pursue the diamond and Atlantic trades, and while the remaining Sephardim increasingly concentrated on cross-Mediterranean trade. Ultimately for this and perhaps other reasons Simon Barrow followed his new Sephardic kin - to Barbados.

7. Around 1700 Livorno Jews were encouraged to settle in Tunis to promote trade. Among these was at least one Baruch Lousada for born in Tunis around 1725 was a merchant Elias Baruch Lousada. He had a son Benjamin and further descendants in Tunis through to the 20th century (see ref 171). The father of Elias Baruch Lousada was of the same generation as our proposed wife of Simon Barrow of Barbados and they were perhaps siblings. Ref 185 shows an Isaac Baruch Lousada alive after 1667 when Isaac #42 died in Amsterdam - and this later Isaac was perhaps a grandson. This person may have been the Isaac Baruch Lousada who appeared in Tunis in 1686 (ref 185) and we suggest his visit was a precursor to his descendants settling in Tunis.

8. It would be surprising if Moses was as long-lived as his brother Simon and he is thus not present in the will of Simon Barrow of Barbados who died in 1801. It thus seems that Simon was aware enough of his Ashkenasi family circumstances to know that Moses had died. However Gedalia of Prague must have outlived Moses for Gedalia appeared in the will though could not be traced for inheritance purposes. Of course Simon knew his sister died, for she seems to have gone to Barbados with him; the will speaks only of Isaac Levi her husband.

9. Whether or not the Barrow ancestors kept their links to the Livorno Baruch Lousadas, they developed links to Barbados Baruch Lousadas once they reached Barbados. A key link was via the Massiah family which may have had Pisa origins, but there was a further link via the Valverde family.

10. Though it was only in 1848 that a Baruch Lousada link with the Duque de Losada was publicly assumed, this probably reflected a family belief of much earlier exalted Iberian ancestry. Indeed stemming from the 1492 expulsion Curiel ancestry (ref 35) through the Lamegos linked them with the Portuguese royal family, and there may have been pre-1492 links as well.

11. Ref 185 shows a Jacob Baruch Lousada alive after 1681 when Jacob #1388 died in Amsterdam.