Villaflor and the connection between the Baruch Lousada, Henriques Faro, Israel Pereira and (Levi) Montezinos families

 The man who set off Messianic excitement in the mid 1600s by discovering 'lost tribes of Israel' in the region of present-day Colombia was Antonio de Luis Montezinos of Villaflor; but he was also known as Aaron Levi (ref 8 pp195-211). Presumably he and Fernando Montezinos were members of the family who became known in Livorno and Amsterdam as Levi Montezinos (see note 7 below). Abraham Israel Pereira (formerly Tomas Rodrigues Pereira) was a brother-in-law of Fernando Montezinos (see note 6 below). Abraham Israel Pereira, Fernando Montezinos, George Lopes Telles and David Henriques Faro were all born in Villaflor in the 1588-1610 period. David's uncle Manuel (ref 216) was also from Villaflor. The Baruch Lousadas must have been there to supply the wife who became the mother of Abraham Israel Pereira (see note 3). The Coutinho family - with whom the Israel Pereiras had later links - were also in Villaflor (see note 11 below).

After Villaflor, Abraham Israel Pereira and Fernando Montezinos lived for decades as wealthy Portuguese New Christians in Madrid before making their respective escapes with fortunes more or less intact (see note 14). Livorno figured in the Baruch Lousada dispersal but the Henriques Faro trajectory, other than that family members appeared in Amsterdam and London, is unknown to us. In general it can be stated that not all family members participated in each move, though perhaps for different reasons. Thus some descendants of Amador de Lousada lived on in Vinhais (see also note 10 below) but fell foul of the Coimbra Inquisition around 1650 though it seems some in the next generation made a hasty retreat to London in 1698; as apparently did Moses Henriques Faro who appeared in London in 1682 though his sister was married to Moses Baruch Lousada who had been there since 1660; while Lope Rodrigues Pereira of Villaflor was tried by the Spanish Inquisition (in 1637 - see note 12 below) no doubt prompting his probable close relative Tomas to leave Madrid in good time. Fernando Montezinos after leaving Spain remained careful of his Seville New Christian merchant sons and died a New Christian in Antwerp, thus not joining his close Lopes Telles relatives as openly Jewish in the Protestant world. The (Henriques) Faro name suggests a link with the south, and thus it may be that not all the New Christians of Villaflor originated from Spanish towns near the Duoro.

No doubt reflecting the New Christian society which flourished for a generation or two in Villaflor, the will (ref 141) of Jacob Israel Pereira, eldest son of Abraham Israel Pereira, reveals multiple links with the Baruch Lousadas and the Henriques Faros of Amsterdam and London. Thus his father Abraham Israel Pereira was a full cousin of Abraham Baruch Lousada #45 (see note 3 below). Jacob Israel Pereira was a full cousin of Abraham Henriques Faro (see note 4 below) whom we infer was the uncle who witnessed the marriage of Sarah Baruch Lousada a daughter of Moses Baruch Lousada (see note 5 below). Sarah's mother Rachel was a niece of Jacob Israel Pereira (see note 5 below). The will makes bequests to the daughters of Moses Baruch Lousada and his brother Jacob #1388. And remarkably, the last wife of Jacob Israel Pereira was a Den Haag Louzada (see note 10 below) a family branch whose originator Abraham probably found a path to Amsterdam which was distinct from that via Livorno which was taken by his Baruch Lousada relatives. Moses Baruch Lousada had 2 Henriques Faro marriages - the second no doubt with a relative (perhaps a niece - see note 5 below) of the first wife (see note 1 below). The chart includes all these links, though as the notes make clear, not all the specific links shown are equally as certain!



1. An earlier marriage of Moses Baruch Lousada yielded a son Abraham and Moses Henriques Faro was his uncle who witnessed the circumcision of Abraham's newborn son. That is, Moses Henriques Faro was the brother-in-law of Moses Baruch Lousada #46. Moses Henriques Faro was a 'forasteiro' or outsider (perhaps a newly-arrived Portuguese). References are given here.

2. The two Isaac Henriques Faros (ie Isaac #1635 and Isaac d1719) were cousins and had successive positions on Dotar (ref 151) and Isaac d1719 had a father David (see burial record below). Isaac d1686 followed his father Abraham. On 14 Nov 2014 Ton Tielen sent Amsterdam data linking the Israel Pereiras and the Henriquez Faros (ref 217). That is, David Henriques Faro (see marriage and death record below) was a brother of Abraham Henriques Faro the elder. On 20 Aug 2017 Ton Tielen sent an extract of the will of Manuel Faro (ref 216) who was an uncle of David Henriques Faro; Manuel Faro called himself Isaac Israel Faro and Abraham Isaac Faro. Though he was an uncle of David and Isaac Henriques Faro, it is unclear how closely related he was to the Henriques Faro family. Thus he could have been an uncle by marriage and not a blood relative. Alternatively, his brother or sister may have married an Henriques Faro; or even (as we show in the chart) perhaps he was an Henriques Faro himself but changed his name in the same manner as did his 'uncle' Abraham Israel Pereira.

3. Ref 141 shows that Abraham Israel Pereira 1606-74 was a 'cousin germain' of Abraham Baruh Lousada meaning that a parent of each was a sibling. Abraham #45 who died in 1714 in London was a half/step-brother and probable cousin of Moses Baruch Lousada of London who died 1699 in London, Aaron #376 who died 1693 in Barbados, and Jacob #1388 who died in 1681 in Amsterdam; but probably a full brother of David #44 who died 1699 in Amsterdam aged 59 having been born in 1640 in Livorno. Prompted mainly by his year of death we take the birth of Abraham Baruch Lousada to have been after 1640. Therefore the 2 Abrahams must have been effectively born a generation apart, which suggests that Abraham Israel Pereira had a Baruch Lousada mother, though this inference is not certain (see note 13 below). We nevertheless set out to identify the parents of Abraham Israel Pereira, and this was achieved thanks to Fernando Gonzalez del Campo Roman - see ref 145 - so the Baruch Lousada mother was identified as Beatriz Geronima. Since on general grounds we believe Amador de Lousada was a Baruch Lousada ancestor, it is natural to conclude Amador's daughter Briatis was Beatriz Geronima (but the origin of the Geronima name is however a mystery for which we have suggested (see note 5) a possible explanation). Amador was from Vinhais, but was linked to many people named Rodrigues from nearby Braganza and the more distant Villaflor. Beatriz Geronima married the New Christian Antonio Rodrigues Pereira of Villaflor, and their son Tomas who married in Madrid became the first Israel Pereira of Amsterdam.

4. Ref 141 shows that Jacob Israel Pereira (son of Abraham Israel Pereira) was a 'cousin germain' of Abraham Henriques Faro. We also know that Isaac Henriques Faro (d1686 Amsterdam) married Rebecca Pereira (d1693 Amsterdam - see their death records below. (Another Isaac/Rebecca pair was considered but does not appear relevant - see note 8 below). This supplies the relevant Amsterdam link between the families, so that Abraham Henriques Faro the cousin appears to have been the son of Isaac d1686. Jacob Israel Pereira's close link to Sarah's mother Rachel (his niece) suggests Sarah's marriage witness Abraham was the same person as Abraham the cousin of Jacob Israel Pereira. We note that there was another Abraham Henriques Faro (see note 9 below) but currently consider him not to be relevant here.

5. Moses Henriques Faro appears as a brother of the first wife (name unknown) of Moses Baruch Lousada (see note 1 above). Abraham Henriques Faro is an uncle of Sarah Baruch Lousada who witnessed her 1709 wedding and is thus a brother of Moses' second Henriques Faro wife as shown in Amsterdam marriage data. As ref 141 shows, Sarah's mother was Rachel. Jacob Israel Pereira was a full cousin of Abraham Henriques Faro and this was probably the same Abraham who was a brother of Rachel (as we argue in note 4), but if so Abraham and Rachel must only have been half-siblings, for Rachel according to ref 141 was a niece of Jacob Israel Pereira and not described like him as a full cousin. Therefore Rachel must have arisen from an earlier marriage of Isaac as his last wife Rebecca Pereira died after him. To explain how Rachel could have been a niece of Jacob we note that Jacob's first known wife was Rebecca de Paiva who was born in Seville in 1631 (see, and who died in Amsterdam in 1667 (see This left time before Jacob married his last wife Sarah Louzada (see note 10), who would not have come of age until the 1680s. Thus a 2nd wife could have been a young sister of Isaac Henriques Faro #1635 and thus a young aunt by marriage of Jacob, in which case Rachel could indeed be his niece. In any event, it seems possible if not probable that Rachel was also the niece of (the first wife of) Moses Baruch Lousada himself (since both his spouses were Henriques Faros and his daughter Sarah appeared a generation after his sons Mordecai and Abraham). The daughters (including Sarah) of Moses #46 were to receive a bequest in Jacob's initial will. We are only aware of one such daughter (ie Sarah so her sister(s) perhaps died young - the London death records do not show this but certainly show a son b1686 died young). In any case this bequest was later revoked on 3 Feb 1704 in favour of Sarah's cousins the children of Jacob Baruch Lousada #1388, a brother of Moses. Of Jacob's 3 daughters, Simha and Rebecca did not marry. Perhaps Jacob Israel Pereira belatedly realised that the unmarried Amsterdam daughters of Jacob Baruch Lousada were of greater help to him in his old age than the much younger Sarah who was then in London. But perhaps he had already contributed to Sarah's dowry, though her marriage would have been long-planned if this was so for it occurred 5 years after the revocation!

6. Madrid data (ref 145) gives us the origin and marriage of Abraham Israel formerly Tomas Rodrigues Pereira and also the marriage of Fernando Montezinos making him a brother-in-law.

7. For the family background of Fernando Montezinos see ref 153. Using this reference, for example, we can see that Pedro Lopes Telles was a brother of Fernando Montezinos and also Manuel Lopes Telles; the latter, also named Manuel Serra, spent periods in La Rochelle and Hamburg before he settled in Amsterdam in 1631. But Pedro Lopes Telles was an uncle of George Lopes Telles, born in Villaflor in 1607 and hence George was probably the son of Manuel Lopes Telles and of course nephew of Fernando Montezinos. However we have yet to identify how they link with the later Levi Montezinos families.

8. Confusingly another Isaac Faro #1386 who died 20 Kislev 5431 (1670) married a Rebecca but this one is named Rebecca Simha. She did show the Pereira name but Isaac did not show the Henriques name.

9. The Abraham whom the chart shows married Esther Velozinos in 1681 had a brother Isaac (who witnessed the 1681 marriage). But the father of Jacob's cousin Abraham was Isaac and since we have found that the likelihood of same-name father-son pairs in Amsterdam was 2%, we are inclined to accept that Esther's husband was not the son of Isaac d1686 and hence not the brother of Jacob's cousin Abraham. The chart thus shows Esther's husband and his brother Isaac were sons of David. The 2 Isaacs were cousins as shown in Dotar records (see note 2) and thus we conclude that David and Abraham the elder were brothers. We have found nothing to indicate that Esther's husband witnessed the 1709 marriage of Sarah Baruch Lousada of London, and thus detract from our identification (in note 4) of Abraham the marriage witness with Abraham Jacob's cousin.

10. Based on our exploration of the descendants of Amador de Lousada, and because we now consider that the Den Haag Louzadas were close relative of the Baruch Lousadas, Sarah's father Isaac #50 (who married very young) appears to have been a cousin (once removed) of Jacob Israel Pereira. We suggest he was a grandson of Fernando (the 1st son of Amador de Lousada) who remained in Portugal. Perhaps the father of Isaac #50 travelled to Amsterdam via Venice (for the Den Haag Louzadas had Venice connections) as apparently did Abraham Israel Pereira.

11. See, where this marriage has a groom David Pereira b1614 Lisbon (who may not in fact be a Rodrigues/Israel Pereira) and a bride Rachel Coutinho of Villaflor. Manuel Faro of Villaflor (ref 216) gave a bequest to a Coutinho. See also for the Coimbra Inquisition record of Ana Pereira Coutinho from Villaflor.

12. Our distant relative Michael Waas found a 1637 Spanish Inquisition record of the trial of Lope Rodrigues Pereira.

13. In more recent times we note a case showing how large differences can arise in the case of children of male siblings. The birth-age range of the children of John Baruh Lousada #25 was 1833-54, while that of his brother Simeon Charles #74 was 1876-88. That is, an age-difference of such cousins of 55 years can be found. In this case John married in 1832 aged 22 and Simeon married in 1875 aged 51. Clearly age at marriage and difference in date of birth can have a big impact and need to be taken into account. These factors were considered in studying how the age difference between Abraham Baruch Lousada #45 and Abraham Israel Pereira may have come about in the context of our hypothesis - see here (scroll down to note 12).

14. An account of the Madrid life of Fernando Montezinos may be found in ref 123 p227, 222-3 where he is noted as leaving for Antwerp in 1657 after having been dealt with by the Cuenca Inquisition in 1656, while a brief account of the Madrid life of Tomas Rodrigues Pereira aka Abraham Israel Pereira may be found in ref 123 p230 where he is noted as having fled to Amsterdam in 1646 with disputed funds.