|The Portuguese Synagogue
consecrated on 5 August in 1675.
Views of the interior can be found in John
pictorial diary (PDF, 6MB) and also here.
|Swanenburgerstraat, where the Louzada house 'Isle of Barbados' was||Now there is a large music theatre on the site|
The architect of the Portuguese Synagogue - which still stands despite WW2 - was Elias Bouman, one of the leading Dutch architects of the time. This building symbolizes the zenith of the Dutch Sephardim. By 1619 they had organized 3 communities but by 1639 they had amalgamated their 3 communities and synagogues (Beth Israel, Neve Shalom, Beth Jacob) into one using the Beth Israel synagogue until the new synagogue was built. The Ashkenasim only organized their first community in 1635, but they went on to complete their united Synagogue before 1675 and then to outnumber the Sephardim by two to one in 1700 (ref 26 provides a useful depiction of these times). John Bury visited Amsterdam in March 2012 and provided a pictorial diary (PDF, 6MB) of his visit (see note 1 below).
Julian Land visited the Portuguese Synagogue with Ton Tielen (see note 2 below) in Sep 2013 and the results can be found here. The Swanenburgerstraat house of the Louzadas also appears in the Amsterdam Archives (ref 101). Altogether, Amsterdam records of the family enhanced our image of the early London Baruh Lousadas, and supports the idea that though the family was in Livorno when David was born in 1640, it (after the fall of Dutch Brazil in 1654 - see note 5 below) made a virtually simultaneous arrival in Barbados (Aaron, Abraham and David), London (Moses and Jacob) and Amsterdam (Isaac and perhaps Solomon, with Jacob moving from London and David later from Barbados). However, from the same source we know that Moses Baruh Lousada appeared annually in Amsterdam in the period 1649-59, presumably in preparation for the family's move from Livorno. The Baruch Louzadas who appeared in Amsterdam are shown in a special-purpose chart.
Amsterdam played a key role in the sugar trade (see note 3 below). A financier of the later Amsterdam sugar refineries was Abraham Israel Pereira, formerly known as Tomas Rodrigues Pereira about whom much is known (ref 23 p174, ref 59, ref 26, and ref 123). Pereira appears to have reached Amsterdam in 1646 and there is a report of him in 1655 requesting permission to build a sugar refinery with his brother Isaac (see note 4 below). Pereira was born in Villaflor in 1606, married in Madrid in 1628, and died in Amsterdam on 30 Oct 1674 (ref 144). Pereira was in fact a close relative of the Baruch Lousadas (ref 141) - a cousin of Abraham #45 who died in London in 1714 and hence probably of Moses and his siblings of whom Abraham was the last survivor. Pereira appeared almost a generation span before Abraham Baruh Lousada, and it thus seems likely that his mother was a Baruch Lousada as discussed here (go to note 12).
1. He also collected some marriage data relevant to our understanding of the Amsterdam/Barbados Lousadas. Edgar Samuel updated this data, confirming who were the parents of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 and his Barbados Lousada siblings as enumerated by Wilfred Samuel (ref 5). Later we became familiar with the online Amsterdam Jewish records for Jewish deaths and marriages.
2. In May and June 2013, Ton Tielen substantially assisted our grasp of the Amsterdam Jewish archives - in particular by finding proof of another sibling Jacob Baruh Lousada (ref 99). This sibling was probably the Jacob reported as being in London in 1660 with Moses (ref 6). Ton Tielen kindly provided us with data of the taxes paid by the Lousada family to the Jewish community from which it seems Jacob went to Amsterdam in 1662 and was there at the time of the death of his father Isaac in 1667, but Jacob died in Amsterdam in 1681, whereupon David assumed the leading role in the family. Another possible sibling Solomon emerges, but the tax data as a whole shows that the family did not arrive in Amsterdam until 1662 ie after Moses and Jacob first appeared in London.
3. From ref 117 p73 we learn that the number of sugar refineries in Amsterdam was 25 in 1620 and 60 in 1660. This illustrates the growth in sugar demand and also why in 1654 when the Dutch were ejected from Brazil there was such a need to establish replacement supplies of sugar from new plantations especially in the Caribbean using the skills acquired in Dutch Brazil. This led, in a complex way via failed colonisation ventures in Cayenne, Pomeroon and Tobago, to the (Jewish) success of Surinam. A list of the signatories of the 1639 Code of Ascamoth for Amsterdam is given here (thanks to Ton Tielen) whilst a 1648 list of Recife community members is given here. As Ton Tielen point out there are names in common. Of course less than a decade later, many more of the Recife Jews appeared in Amsterdam.
4. This refinery was onsold to a Dutchman in 1664 for 45,000 guilders (ref 143 - see p84 in the chapter by Jonathan Schorsch).
5. This end was likely with the Dutch territory already having been reduced by a revolt of Portuguese planters.