The 2 Amsterdam marriages of David Baruch Lousada #44 reveal Spanish, Italian and French elements in his family's travel to Amsterdam from Portugal (see note 1 below for sources and some critical comments)

 

  David #44 was a resident of the English colony of Barbados (see ref 5) where the Governor endenized him in 1664 (see note 11 below). In contrast, the most obvious thing about the above marriage records is that they show that he was born in Livorno in 1640. Almost as striking is that they show that his parents subsequently moved to Amsterdam for his mother witnessed the 1673 marriage (his father Isaac #42 having died in Amsterdam in 1667). The timing of the family's arrival in Amsterdam can be obtained from records of their Synagogue taxes, which show his father's arrival in 1662 with Jacob #1388 and Solomon #1501. David arrived in 1672 whereupon he had the two (further) marriages shown above the first of which suggests he travelled via France on his way from Barbados to Amsterdam (see note 10 below). Quite how his parents travelled to Amsterdam is not clear, though as Moses #46 evidently came to London in 1660 via France, it would not be surprising if David's parents came that way also (see notes 1, 10 and 13 below for French connections). We infer the importance of the Barbados / London / Amsterdam trade to the family from the fact that David's Amsterdam house in Swanenburgerstraat had a plaque 'Isle of Barbados' (ref 101). David became the leading commercial achiever of the family after Jacob died in 1681 and his trade interests were not limited to Barbados (see note 13 below). David visited Barbados from Amsterdam after his 1677 marriage (see ref 5) but was soon back in Amsterdam for he witnessed 2 interesting Sephardic marriages in Amsterdam in 1679 and 1682 (see note 1 below). In 1686, the year his mother Luna died, he paid the Mahamad for a kaddish to be said for his parents and also his 'brother' Jacob (ref 99) who died in Amsterdam in 1681. In Amsterdam David was Gabay of the Aby Yetomin (see note 9 below) in 1683, and this can be seen in his death record (see note 2 below). He was a member of Dotar, a charity providing dowries for orphan Jewish girls, and Dotar records show a family link between David Baruch Louzada and Raphael Montezinos of Livorno (see note 8 below). He was Gabay of the Terra Santa charity, providing funding for devout Sephardim who travelled to Jerusalem (ref 108). He made his last visit to Barbados in 1696 (see note 6 below) after the death there of Aaron #376 (not a full brother - see note 12 below).

David #44 appears to have had 4 surviving children. In Barbados he had a daughter Rebecca Hannah (see note 5 below) and a (probable step-)son Jacob (see note 6 below). The marriages of his 2 younger children highlight David's central role in the family. His son Isaac #1297 married Rebecca (daughter of his 'brother' Jacob) in Bevis Marks in 1696, and he was probably of the 1673 marriage (with the complication indicated in note 10 below) with  'Isaac' being his father's name. His youngest son Solomon probably came from the 1677 marriage above (see note 10 below) and married Sarah (daughter of his 'brother' Moses) in Bevis Marks on 15 Kislev 5469 (this marriage was recorded in the same year in Amsterdam) - and Solomon bought a house in Amsterdam on 3 Dec 1709, presumably to live in with his new wife (ref 291). These marriages of 1696 and 1709 were between 'cousins' and can be seen in the chart of the broader family. We suggest that Isaac #1297 spent a year or two around 1700 in Surinam where his son David was born and then on arrival in Curacao took on the community duty of administrator of burials in 1700 with his son David following him in 1733. Isaac #1297 like his father was a member of Dotar (in 1714 when he was the oldest surviving son - see ref 107) so he must have travelled to Amsterdam for a period around this time, but spent much of his life in Curacao where he died in 1721. David #44 left a long line of traceable descendants only through his daughter Rebecca Hannah (see note 5 below).

The family presence in Barbados led to links with Curacao and Surinam, possibly reflecting their flourishing economies in contrast to the more static outlook for Barbados. Davids' daughter lived a married life in Curacao from around 1685, and his sister Gracia de Mercado of Barbados moved to Curacao after the 1696 death of their 'brother' Aaron in Barbados (thus becoming Gracia de Caceres of Curacao). A family link with Surinam arose direct from Barbados via the first son David of Aaron #376 of Barbados, but a direct Amsterdam link with Curacao and Surinam can be inferred from the 1699 financial settlement. This concerned a family dispute which had been unresolved since 1685 when Aaron #376 in Barbados raised it by not signing family accounts. The settlement followed not only the death of Aaron in Barbados but also the death of the London Moses #46 earlier in 1699 who was probably a step-brother of David. It is hard to avoid the thought that David was the author and financier of the settlement, the principals of which were David, the estate of Moses #46, and the London in-law of Aaron #376 ie Isaac Gomes Henriques. It covers a 2nd Moses who was probably a full brother of David (see note 7 below where we distinguish this 2nd Moses from Moses #46). Our work indicates this is Moses #1585 who arrived in Surinam around 1670 and then left for Curacao before 1695 where he appeared in Gracia's 1700 will (ref 113 p194). Most significantly for the current-day Louzadas of The Netherlands, Moses #1585, prominent in the business affairs of Curacao until his death in 1724, would become a male-line ancestor of the enduring Surinam Baruch Lousadas via his grandson Abraham #1587 of Curacao (see our chart of this Barbados/Curacao/Surinam linkage). David #44 died in Amsterdam in late 1699 (see note 2 below) a few months after completing the family settlement. He was buried in Beth Haim at Oudekerk.

 

 

Notes:

1. The 1673 marriage can be found at http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/tim_sephard_marriages/amsterdam_tim_sephard_marriages_view.php?editid1=1996 and the 1677 marriage can be found at http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/tim_sephard_marriages/amsterdam_tim_sephard_marriages_view.php?editid1=2082. The 1673 record appears to show an incorrect birth date for the bride, as her marriage bann gives her age as 29 and hence her birth year should be 1644. It is possible that this marriage confirms an earlier marriage elsewhere (see note 10 for the reason for this suggestion). The 1677 record erroneously describes his previous wife as his brother, but she is correctly noted in the online marriage bann record. The marriage banns may be found here. For the 1679 Rodrigues da Costa & Penso marriage witnessed by David #44 see http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/tim_sephard_marriages/amsterdam_tim_sephard_marriages_view.php?editid1=2124. In this marriage Isaac Rodrigues da Costa was his brother-in-law and Anna Penso was from Lisbon. For the 1682 Montanana & Franco marriage witnessed by David #44 see http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/tim_sephard_marriages/amsterdam_tim_sephard_marriages_view.php?editid1=3162. In this marriage the groom was from Piedmont and the bride from Seville. The 2 Amsterdam marriages of David #44 show his birth in Livorno and the birth of the wives in Paris and Madrid respectively. The marriages illustrate how mortality patterns of the era shortened marriages (noting David was a married man in Barbados before appearing in Amsterdam in 1672 and he may therefore have wed in Barbados or even beforehand eg in France when a young man of around 20). They also give a fascinating impression of the pattern of departure from Iberia of the Baruch Louzadas and related families, as do some research notes on the Levie Gomes family (which may be found here) which demonstrate a strong Madrid connection. In addition the names of the 2 wives suggest linkage with the Lamegos of Madrid, Rouen and Jamaica, a link later manifest in the 5 Lousada-Lamego marriages.

2. The death summary can be found at http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/port_isr_gem_burials/amsterdam_port_isr_gem_burials_view.php?editid1=2509 and the detailed notes at http://www.dutchjewry.net/jpg/00243601.jpg.

                       

3. Abraham was a son of Isaac Henriquez Moron, possibly the same Isaac Henriquez Moron who clashed with Commander de Fijne of Pomeroon in 1663 (ref 21). His wife was Rebecca Mocatta from a family with Livorno and well as Recife history. Pomeroon was a Dutch settlement which for almost a decade was a very successful sugar producer - this success was because of its experienced Jewish planters from Brazil, probably all of whom reached Pomeroon via Amsterdam. See elsewhere for the connection Pomeroon had with the formation of Surinam.

4. Isaac was only a namesake of the famous physician and philosopher who took part in the debates leading to the ex-communication of Baruch Spinoza and Juan de Prado by the Amsterdam Jewish community (see ref 18). The life of the original Isaac Orobio de Castro is also instructive. He was born in Braganza around 1617 as Baltazar de Orobio, to a New Christian family that tenaciously preserved Jewish rites in secret. His family moved to Spain, which had become for a time relatively more tolerant than Portugal of New Christians of doubtful Christian faith, settling in Malaga. He became a medical student at the University of Osuna in Andalucía and continued at the University of Alcala together with religious studies at Madre de Dios there (Juan de Prado also went there). The family tangled with the Spanish Inquisition at Cuenca. After a period in Seville where Isaac (Baltazar) served at the University and also as the physician of the Duke de Medinaceli, he ran foul of the Inquisition and ultimately made a departure around 1660 from Spain to the Bayonne region where crypto-Jewish relatives lived and with whom Baltazar's family had stayed in contact for many decades. In 1662 he went to Amsterdam where he was able to live as a Jew, and joined in many philosophical and religious discussions there.

5. David #44 was a father in Barbados but we do not know when he married or when he arrived. Aaron #376 was there by 1659, but the earliest date we have for David is 1664 when he was endenized (see note 11). His son Jacob - see note 6 - may have been born before David arrived in Barbados since he was probably at least 18 in 1679. A Jewish Barbados marriage was possible for a formal Jewish community had existed in Barbados since about 1654 (ref 21). David's daughter Rebecca Hannah was born in Barbados in 1667 and married Abraham Henriques Moron (see note 3) in Curacao circa 1685 and died in Curacao in 1716. Abraham and the children then went to Amsterdam but in his 1718 will (ref 113 p146) left a bequest to Rebecca's Curacao niece Clara a daughter of Isaac #1297 her (probable half-) brother (see note 6 below). Later Rebecca's daughter Esther married Isaac Orobio de Castro in Amsterdam in 1721 (see note 4 above).

6. Jacob #711 was a son too old to have been from one of the Amsterdam marriages, and indeed (based on the 3 pieces of evidence we will shortly discuss) appears to have been born when David #44 was around 20 and thus before David reached Barbados (the earliest date we have for David in Barbados was 1664 - see note 5). He appears to have lived his life in the English-speaking world of Barbados, with evidence of only one trip away for he travelled with wife Rebecca and his father back to Barbados in 1696 (see ref 182 and ref 5). In Barbados, Jacob was an adult by 1680 for he appeared (ref 5) in 1679 as a member of a company of soldiers under Lt-Col Samuel Tidcombe, he was a property-owner in Barbados in 1679-80 (see table dealing with property ownership 1679-80 in ref 207 PTI p3 - our page numbering; perhaps this was property left to him by David upon departure for Amsterdam perhaps via France), and he witnessed the will of Aaron Navarro in 1685 (ref 5 but see here for a further Navarro connection). He was endenized in 1687 (see note 11 below). Jacob and Rebecca lost at least 2 young sons in Barbados (Isaac in 1686 and Eliahu in 1691 - see here for our discussion of the dates of death). The absence of an earlier son David named after David #44 suggests that Jacob was a step-son, as does the name Isaac being given to a later son of David #44 in Amsterdam. Some time after 1687, and probably after the death of Eliahu in 1691, Jacob and Rebecca went from Barbados to London and possibly Amsterdam and returned with his father in 1696. Jacob's wife Rebecca died shortly after arrival back in Barbados (ref 61 #163), Jacob's second wife Rachel died in Barbados in 1710 (ref 61 #146), and Jacob himself died in 1711 (https://rdc.reed.edu/c/jewishatl/s/r?_pp=20&query=jacob%20baruch%20louzada&s=aaa23dbe277bac6b8906ca430030d62e7f69a2d7&p=3&pp=1 - note this burial is not recorded by ref 61). Jacob was a widower when he died (his will is indexed in ref 85 noting his estate was administered by creditor Abraham Francis Nunes - perhaps this was Abraham Franco Nunes his cousin and son of Luna #1502).

7. Though widely regarded as a brother, Moses #46 was alive at the same time as the younger Moses #1585 and thus seems to have been a step-brother of David #44. David #44 and the younger Moses #1585 were undoubtedly the sons of both Isaac and Luna, and it is therefore clear that Moses #46 of London was certainly not the son of both Isaac and Luna and possibly the son of neither. See note 12 for our further thinking on the relation between David #44, Moses #46 and Aaron #376 of Barbados.

8. See ref 107; and also note that the bride's witness in the 1673 marriage record above was Jacob Montezinos though the relevance of this is currently unclear.

9. Aby Yetomin was a charitable society caring for orphan boys - see note 120 of Chapter 3 of ref 90 for the relationship of this charity with the community.

10. The 1691 Sermon Book of David #44 shows only 2 Amsterdam sons, Isaac and Solomon and that the birthdate of Isaac precedes the 1673 marriage while the birthdate of Solomon falls nicely after the 1677 marriage. We suggest here an explanation in the case of Isaac relating to a secular marriage elsewhere (eg France) which then would have needed to be confirmed by the 1673 Jewish Amsterdam marriage above. If the secular marriage indeed occurred in France during David's passage from Barbados to Amsterdam, it may have been his 2nd passage through France as he would probably have travelled with his parents a decade or so earlier. David had a 3rd surviving son Jacob (see note 6 in which we suggest Jacob was a step-son) but as he, Jacob, was living in Barbados he would not have been involved in family synagogue services and his name is missing from the sermon book. The sermon book is discussed in ref 297.

11. About David's endenization, ref 74 states endenization occurred in England but it was probable that only recording and ratification occurred in England - ref 42 is more circumspect, only referring to David as being in Barbados. It is much more likely that endenization was done in Barbados by the Governor as the policy of local endenization was not banned until 1699/1700. About Jacob's endenization, again see ref 74 but as just observed in the case of his father this was probably done in Barbados by the Governor.

12. Aaron was almost certainly a step-brother, perhaps a half-brother and possibly a cousin, of David #44. Aaron and Moses #46 are much more likely to have been a pair of full brothers. See note 7 for our comparison of Moses #46 and Moses #1585. Isaac #42 may have married the widow of David #1584, probably his brother, and whom we deduce elsewhere was the father of Aaron #376 of Barbados, but then married Luna when the widow also died. Perhaps therefore Moses #46 and Aaron #376, as well as being a step-brothers were also cousins of David #44, doubly so if Luna was the widow's sister! As the first 'brother' to die, Jacob #1388 was probably a member of the first cohort of 'brothers' with Aaron #376 and Moses #46.

13. In May 2018, thanks to Fernanado Gonzalez del Campo Roman, a trading link to Martinique involving David Baruch Lousada was located in the Amsterdam Notary Archive. This reawakened our suspicion that Aaron Lamego proceeded to Jamaica from Bordeaux via Martinique (perhaps now preferred over Guadeloupe!) and Saint Domingue. A summary of the document is reproduced below and the reference is https://notarieel.archief.amsterdam/f/13.835.058.220.908/files. The 3 pages we have extracted are shown here.