Lousadas and their marriages
Though much of the detail of Lousada marriages is taken up in the various aspects of the story elsewhere it is perhaps useful to reflect on how important these marriages were especially when translocations were involved. Very often our Jewish ancestors moved where there was a prior linkage of kin or associates, and marriages then followed to cement the new linkage. But sometimes it seems that marriages preceded a move - as we are inclined to think occurred in the case of Gracia Baruch Lousada who was the wife of David Raphael Mercado in Barbados but probably married him before moving there herself (see Mercado section below). The move of Eliezer Montefiore to Barbados followed his (probable) aunt Bailah who had married the first Simon Barrow, who had previously come to Barbados around 1750 following his earlier Baruch Lousada link. Eliezer Montefiore married his cousin Eve's daughter Judith Joseph Levi in Barbados in 1797.
The marriage in Spain between the families that later became known as Baruch Lousada and Israel Pereira was perhaps influential in the move to London of Moses Baruh Lousada - for Abraham Israel Pereira financed the activities of Menasseh ben Israel - who spearheaded the push from Amsterdam for the English Resettlement - and thus when Pereira's nephew Moses Baruh Lousada arrived in about 1662 it was not surprising that he instantly became a senior member of the community with David Abravanel the probable brother-in-law of Menasseh ben Israel. Marriage between cousins was also important in binding families together - we can see 2 such marriages between the London and Amsterdam branches in 1696 and 1709. There are many cases where the death of a spouse was replaced by a sibling - Judith Joseph Levi in Barbados in the 1770s had Jacob Levi as a father and Joseph Levi as a step-father; Daniel Baruh Lousada fo Jamaica first married his London cousin Rachel in 1765, then when she died he married her sister Rebecca in 1769, but he soon died whereupon she married David d'Aguilar on 21 Jun 1771 just after her brother Isaac married David's sister Judith on 6th Mar 1771; after Rachel Baruh Lousada of Barbados lost her husband and cousin Daniel in 1779, she married his brother Emanuel in 1783 as he had been widowed. Daniel's brother Emanuel (father of Isaac who became the first reinstated Duke) married a cousin (Esther #88) and Isaac married his 2nd cousin Lydia (Leah before conversion to Christianity).
The Baruch Lousada move from Barbados to Jamaica may have been catalyzed by the marriage of Esther Baruh Lousada to the Touro family, for it seems that Esther left Barbados well before her 3 siblings Jacob, Emanuel and Hannah followed her to Jamaica.
The city of Lamego in the region of Oporto (see map) gave its name to a prominent New Christian family which was strongly linked to the Lousadas. Perhaps the Lamego presence in Jamaica was influential in the Baruch Lousada move there around 1705; certainly 5 of the next generation of Baruh Lousadas followed Aaron Lamego and his son Isaac to London.
Perhaps before the Lousadas moved from Barbados to Jamaica, they had indirect links with the Rouen Lamegos who used the Montezinos family in Madrid as agents - and this family was linked to the Baruch Lousadas via the Israel Pereira family. We have not proven that Rachel Gomes Henriques the mother of Esther, Jacob, Emanuel and Hannah was a Lamego but the surname suggests this was the case - as these names can be found in the early Lamego Atlantic trading family. The Lamegos were linked with the de Morais family in Rouen and London. Later, the Lamegos were a key factor in the assimilation into England of the d'Aguilar and the Lumbroso de Matos families - Rebecca Lamego married the wealthy but eccentric Ephraim d'Aguilar, and the wealthy Esther Lamego married Abraham Lumbroso de Matos Mocatta - who formed Mocatta & Goldsmid and who adopted his mother's Mocatta surname. The closeness of the Lamego and Lousada families is shown by the 1743 marriage of Jacob Lousada #36 and Abigail Lamego #37; this pair were cousins. Such marriages were not prohibited under Jewish law and indeed were not uncommon as they served to consolidate family wealth.
When Diego Lopes Pereira (Baron d'Aguilar) came to London from Vienna in 1749, his family became united by marriage with the Lousadas, Lamegos and the Mendes da Costas of London. Both original branches of the English Lousadas were involved, that descending from Jacob Lousada #380 by way of the Francos of Livorno and London. What this tells us about the Lousadas is not clear - on one reading it confirms a lofty status of the Lousadas amongst the London Sephardim, for it was not wealth alone that would have attracted the Baron - he had plenty himself. Perhaps it also tells that the Lousadas, Lamegos and da Costas were well established in London and provided a basis for the establishment of newcomers. Perhaps it also reflects mutual high social status in Madrid in the d'Olivares period - for the Lamegos were at the peak of financial importance to the Crown at that time and the Lousadas had a connection with the wealthy Rodrigues Pereria (later Israel Pereira) family.
Wilfred Samuel (ref 5) records that another family, the Mercados arrived in Barbados in 1655. The father Moses - a physician and hence a welcome addition to the community – and a son David came from Hamburg but another son Isaac seems to have come from Amsterdam. They had been in Recife in Brazil but had left after Portugal reclaimed their former colonies from the Dutch; this reconquest was finally achieved in 1654 after 9 years of war. Those colonies had become desirable locations for the Sephardic Jews after the departure of the Catholic Portuguese, where newer Jewish arrivals joined earlier crypto-Jews who came under Portuguese rule. The return of the Portuguese was a disaster for both communities but this subsidiary diaspora had its benefits eg in dispersing sugar technology. In Barbados David invented a ‘new type of sugar mill’ for which a patent was granted in 1663 with exploitation rights across the Caribbean; in 1664 Lords Rochester and Willoughby secured a monopoly for the ‘making and framing’ of these sugar mills subject to assistance being given to Mercado. David married Gracia, a sister of Aaron Baruh Lousada, and Gracia appears to have carried on his business affairs for six or seven years after his death in 1685 before moving to Curacao and remarrying. The Mercado/Lousada connection may have commenced or recommenced in Italy and may have been important in the Lousada Livorno-Barbados move. There were Mercado/Lousada marriages in The Netherlands - with the Baruch Lousadas and the Den Haag Louzadas.
The Mocattas moved to London and Amsterdam at about the same time as the Baruh Lousadas; however we have found their name in Dutch Brazil but not in Barbados, Surinam or Jamaica, whereas we could not find the Baruh Lousada name in Dutch Brazil but of course we find them in Barbados, Surinam and Jamaica. Both names appear in Curacao and Livorno. In the mid 17th century, Antonio de Marchena, a Marrano from a branch of the Mocatta family that had stayed in Spain, went to Amsterdam under the name Moses Mocatta. By 1670 he had taken his family to London and in 1671 he appears in a Bevis Marks synagogue list. He was a diamond broker and merchant. His great grandson Abraham Lumbroso de Matos Mocatta founded a bullion brokerage firm in Camomile Street in the City of London, which became known as Mocatta & Goldsmid after Asher Goldsmid joined in about 1789 after the death in that year of the original Ashkenazi partner Alexander Isaac Keyser (ref 50). This represented an early Sephardic/Ashkenazi connection in England. The firm became a bullion broker for the Bank of England, and still exists under different ownership.
The 1730 short-lived marriage between Moses Lumbroso de Matos #194 and Rebecca Mocatta #155 led to further linkages in this story of the Barrow Lousadas. Children of this marriage included Abraham Lumbroso de Matos Mocatta (the Mocatta and Goldsmid founder discussed above). Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos Mocatta was the father of Rachel Mocatta #183 who in marrying Joseph Elias Montefiore in 1783, united the Lumbroso de Matos line with the Montefiores. He was also the grandfather of Rebecca Mocatta who married the Australian Joseph Barrow Montefiore.
The Mocatta-Goldsmid link is echoed in many later Goldsmid links with the Barrow Lousadas (Asher's sister Mary Goldsmid was mother-in-law to Simon Barrow #59, Emanuel Lousada #142 in 1807 married Jane Goldsmid, niece of Asher Goldsmid, and George Baruh Lousada #72 in 1844 married Juliana Goldsmid, granddaughter of Asher Goldsmid). One of the children of this marriage was Herbert George Lousada. By chance in March 2011 the original marriage contract of Marion Helen Mocatta #207 and Herbert George Lousada came into our hands (thanks to Caroline Langton). This marriage serves to highlight what a close connection there was between the families and we drew up a chart to show this. Marion Helen Mocatta and Herbert George Lousada were 3rd cousins once removed (common ancestor Jacob #36).
Simon Barrow of Barbados was born in 1709, and he married Bailah Montefore. Barbados records show their probable son Haim was born in 1744, so the oldest son Baruch (who also lived in Barbados) must have been born before then, say in 1742. As this was before the English Montefiore presence was established in 1752 (see next paragraph), their parents' marriage must have been in Livorno though we do not yet have direct record of this. The Barrow Lousadas had many further marriage connections with this family as can be viewed in the charts dealing with Australia and the Lousada/Mocatta marriage. The Claude Lousada/Maude Spielmann marriage also reveals some connections.
The Montefiores result from the arrival of Joseph Leon (who escaped Mexico for Italy just before 1600 and whose amazing Sephardic ancestry can be seen here). Joseph grew up in the village called Montefiore Conca and we note that Edgar Samuel knew the late John Montefiore-Vita who was an Italian Jewish descendant of the Livorno Montefiore family and who had settled in London before WW2. He had tracked the family to Urbino, and said that they came from a hill village near Urbino called Montefiore Conca. However Edgar Samuel considers that the Montefiores did not reach Livorno until after 1700 being in Urbino for a period before then. A great great grandson of Judah Leon, Moses Vita Montefiore arrived in England in the 1740s and having married Esther Hannah Racah, daughter of a Livorno Moorish merchant, settled in England in 1752. They had seventeen children in total. The third, Samuel, married Grace, a niece of Abigail Lamego - the one who married her cousin Jacob Baruh Lousada #36; as mentioned, Joseph Elias Montefiore married Rachel Mocatta #183 who was another niece of this Abigail Lamego, and was the father of the eminent Sir Moses Montefiore. But possibly the most swashbuckling was the sixth son, Joshua, who attempted to set up a new state in Africa and was a lawyer, soldier and journalist.
The seventh son, Eliezer, married Judith a granddaughter of Simon Barrow #64. He was the father of Joseph Barrow Montefiore (1803-93) who emigrated to Australia (but had a period back in England) and Jacob Montefiore (1801-95 - born in Bridgetown, Barbados), both of whom were early financiers in Australia, founding with others what became the ANZ Bank. Their two nephews Jacob and Eliezer Levi Montefiore also emigrated to Australia. Joseph Barrow Montefiore married Rebecca Mocatta, whose parents were Daniel Mocatta and Nancy Goldsmid #576 who was a cousin of Tryphena Barrow! Rebecca's brother George came to Australia with Joseph and Rebecca.
Simon Barrow, who had an Ashkenasi father and possibly a Baruch Lousada mother, married Bailah Montefiore and gave rise to a long line of illustrious progeny, not the least of which was his grandson Simon Barrow #59, a Mayor of Bath, and whose offspring included a dynasty of English generals and other soldiers. The Barrows and the Baruh Lousadas were linked in England via business and via the marriages between Bella Barrow #33 and Moses Baruh Lousada #32, and between cousins Tryphena Barrow #26, her niece, and John Baruh Lousada #25, her son. Then Bella, after Moses' early death, married Samuel Lyon de Symons, echoing her brother Simon Barrow's marriage to Tryphena Lyon de Symons, Samuel's sister. The family of Bella and Moses was young, and it is self-evident that to a large degree the ancestors of the majority of the English Lousadas were brought up in the (second) Barrow/de Symons household after the untimely death of Moses Baruh Lousada. Perhaps Bella and Samuel also had a role in the raising of the younger children of Simon Barrow as well. In any event the Barrows were left with a large number of children who had lost a parent - Moses Baruh Lousada in 1826 and Tryphena Lyon de Symons in 1828.
The 1807 Lousada/Goldsmid marriage, and the 1808 Barrow/de Symons marriage, provide a further Barrow/Lousada link because a Goldsmid was the mother of Tryphena Lyon de Symons. These were some of the early Sephardic/Ashkenazi marriages. Such marriages became much more common as the Ashkenazi component of Anglo-Jewry came to rival and then overshadow its Sephardic counterpart. Another distant link is provided in the case of Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore.
In Curacao marriage of Moses Baruch Lousada aka Juan Hernadez Lousada was married to Sarah Lopez Henriquez (the latter surname was used by the Senior family) parallels the contemporaneous Amsterdam marriage of Michael Duarte Senior/Rebecca Louzada. However, these Amsterdam Louzadas seem not to be Baruch Lousadas; but as with the Mercado and Israel Pereira marriages above this might seem to suggest that the Baruch Lousadas are not totally unrelated to the Louzadas.
Louzada and Levi Lousada
As we have just seen, though we have distinguished between the Baruch Lousadas and the Louzadas, they married some of the same families. Apart from the Senior/Henriques case just mentioned, the second wife of Jacob Israel Pereira was Sara Louzada. In addition several Mercado/Louzada marriages can be found in the Amsterdam records.
There was a marriage connection between the Baruch Lousadas and the Levi Lousadas evident in Livorno around 1640 in that Isaac Baruch Lousada #42 had Abraham Levi Lousada as an uncle. Some details of the Livorno Levi Lousadas are recorded here (see note 5).
These linkages between the Baruch Lousadas, Levi Lousadas and Louzadas no doubt point to common origins.
This name makes a strong appearance in the Barrow ancestry - first with the marriage of Simon Barrow's sister to Isaac Levi of Amsterdam, and in many other cases especially of Judith Joseph Levi. The Lousadas have a marriage link with the Montezinos family (ref 107) and the Jewish name of (at least some of) the Montezinos family is Levi (ref 8, p197); we have tried but failed to show that Barrow/Levi connection comes from the Levi Montezinos family and we have yet to show how the Barrows and the Portsmouth Levis were first connected. The multiple Barrows & Levi marriages gave rise to the eminent (from the Australian perspective) Barrow Montefiores and Levi Montefiores.
Additional connections can be found as follows:
Villaflor - Rodrigues Pereira
Livorno - Levi Lousada, Levi Montezinos
Barbados - Gomez Henriques, Massiah, de Peza, Lindo, Nunes
Amsterdam - Levi Gomes, Rodrigues da Costa, Franco Nunes, Aboab da Fonseca
Jamaica - Alvin, Touro, Rodrigues Lopes, Abenatar, Almeida, Lopes Torres, Pereira, Aguilar
Curacao - Henriques Moron, de Caceres, Israel, Nunes da Costa, da Motta, Sasso y Campanel
England - Henriques Faro, Franco, Ximenes Cardozo, Gutteres
Surinam - Robles de Medina, Vaz Faro, Cohen, Jessurun