The Den Haag Louzadas

For a time their infrequent usage of the 'Baruch' prefix led us to set aside the Den Haag Louzadas in our exploration of the Baruch Lousada diaspora. However such use of the 'Baruch' prefix as they made (see note 4 below) plus their marriages (shown above) with the Israel Pereiras and the Mercados convince us that they were related to the Baruch Lousadas from Livorno. Perhaps the existence of Levi Lousadas, Israel Lousadas and Lumbroso Lousadas in Livorno created a greater need to use the 'Baruch' name there to make family allegiance more specific.

 The Louzadas in the above chart may be found in Amsterdam data (ref 146 and 312) along with Amsterdam Baruch Lousadas and a small number of people we have not yet placed. Abraham #1875, about whom we know little (essentially only his death record), we infer to have been the father of Isaac #50 the founder of the Den Haag Louzadas (see note 1 below). We explain elsewhere (see note 7 below) how Abraham #1875 is best located as a son of the first marriage of Isaac #42. Whether we can attribute to his (inferred) loss of both parents and hence a somewhat irregular upbringing the later tribulations of Abraham #1875 that became evident in Amsterdam and Den Haag is not clear, but they were many. In 1662, Esther Pereira (see note 8 below), who as suggested in the chart above to have been the mother-in-law of Abraham Louzada, and Rachel Louzada his wife, were under threat of excommunication (see City notice below). Shortly after this, in 1663, DOTAR records (see below) show a marriage between Isaac Louzada and Sarah Pereira. Whilst this probably shows that the excommunication did not actually occur, for DOTAR was a synagogue charity (providing dowries for orphan girls), it does not explain what the transgression was. But clearly Isaac and Sarah were extremely young (Isaac was around 18, and Sarah was still giving birth to children around 1690, 27 years later). When Abraham died in 1676, his burial record gives no hint of his wife and family, while Rachel's burial in 1689 is linked in the records only to that of her grandson Aaron #1874 who died in 1691 and was buried nearby. Finally his great-grandsons Solomon #1773 and Judah #1774 (the sons of Sarah #1790) were in danger of being struck from their father's will for stealing his earlier ketubot.  

Abraham seems to have had only son Isaac #50 (see notes 2 and 3 below) who as noted above married extremely young and unconventionally. His 1st surviving son Solomon reflects the name of the maternal grandfather, and an earlier son may have been lost young. A further 8 children are known from the records. His daughter Sarah #1790 married the extremely eminent Jacob Israel Pereira #1765 (around 1680 - his second marriage), though the dowry would have been barely noticed by the bridegroom! Jacob's military financing tapped many Jewish investors including Isaac's sons-in-law Jacob de Mercado and Michael Senior (see ref 297 p139 which refers to a 1698 notarial deed by them and a third investor Judah Senior Henriques). Isaac himself appears in the will of Jacob Israel Pereira, suggesting that the broader family held together during the tribulations referred to above and that with this help Isaac #50 restored some equilibrium to the family. Isaac's no doubt modest synagogue donation (see here) no doubt reflected his gratitude.

Notes:

1. Abraham we have taken to be the father of Isaac #50 born around 1645 as he is our only evident option. Abraham does not appear among the taxpayers to the synagogue as do the Livorno Baruch Louzadas (from 1662) and Moses Baruch Lousada #46 (from 1649), and we can find no evidence - apart from his Jewish burial - that he embraced a Jewish life in Amsterdam. We do however accept that he may have had a (correctly-named) daughter Esther.

2. Ref 141 shows that Jacob Israel Pereira - son of the Abraham Israel Pereira shown in the chart - had a Sara(h) Louzada as his last wife and that she died between the dates of the 6 April 1705 and 12 April 1706 codicils. It also makes a bequest to Isaac Louzada. Ref 141 shows that children from Jacob's earlier marriage(s) were Abraham, Isaac, Moses and Aaron and that children from the last marriage were Solomon and Judah (as is evident from the 19 Jun 1707 codicil). See here for a chart of the Baruch Lousada / Israel Pereira link and here for a chart of the Villaflor cluster of families.

3. Details of Isaac Lousada, his daughter Rebecca, her husband Michael Duarte Senior (see also note 6 below) and his parents were originally found on http://henny-savenije.com/tng/ but on 17 Apr 2016 this data could not be found there; on 28 Apr 2016 it was found on www.familysearch.org from a 'contributed genealogy'. This data is unsourced, but appears to derive from Den Haag records, and there is partial confirmation from Amsterdam records (see note 6 below for the marriage of Rebecca #621). Amsterdam records contain an unnamed child of Isaac d1685 and d1688 and Aaron d1691. Probably he is the Isaac Louzada who appears with Menasseh Gaon together with other merchants and brokers in giving a character reference for 'Johannes Lepy' in 1678 (ref 175 #5). They also appear in John Bury's Amsterdam marriage data as fathers at the 1695 wedding shown above and a copy of the wedding agreement appears here. The father of Isaac d1734 is given at www.dutchjewry.org/P.I.G./image/01459301.jpg as David whose father was 'Is.'.

4. Solomon Louzada appears in ref 175 (#8 in 1700, #9 in 1713, #10 in 1716 and #11; the 1753 occurrence was in Curacao), and he is named as a Baruch Lousada only in #10 (Baruch Lozada). The Amsterdam records show he was born in 1669, and that he died 19 Apr 1721. Thus the 1753 record must refer to almost the last Baruch Lousada of Curacao. Abraham of Curacao appears to have had a son Isaac and such a person appears in ref 175 #3. Abraham's grave does not appear in ref 113 and may have been lost as a good proportion of Curacao gravestones were. Solomon may have been another son of Abraham, and the same fate may have befallen Solomon's and Isaac's graves. On 20 Mar 2017 Ton Tielen pointed us to a prenuptial agreement before notary Dirk van der Groe between Salomon Louzada and Abigail Gaon (ref 203).

5. In 1755 an Isaac Louzada appears (ref 175 #6) in St Croix in what is now the British Virgin Islands but which was then Danish; he was probably a grandson of the above-mentioned Isaac Louzada of Den Haag via Solomon #1770.

6. Rebecca #621 married a person with Venice ancestry - this Senior/Louzada marriage can be found at https://www.dutchjewry.org/sephar_tim/pers/3036pers.shtml. Sarah #1790 as shown in note 2 married a son of Abraham Israel Pereira, the latter reaching Amsterdam via Venice in 1645. In Amsterdam Abraham Israel Pereira invested in sugar refineries, at least one of which was with his brother Isaac. That this passage to Amsterdam involved Venice can be found in ref 123 p393 (though Pereira's death date attributed to this account is incorrect), and if so perhaps it was to do with the contentious matter of transferring his wealth out of Madrid. A possible consequence of the Venice transit may be found in the employment of Raphael Montezinos of Venice (see here on a Montezinos marriage). A further intriguing Venice link is shown below with the 1700 marriage record - the bride is from Venice, and Reina Louzada the groom's mother was perhaps the widow of a hitherto unidentified Louzada who evidently lived on in Spain.

7. We need to look past the undistinguished life of Abraham #1875 to explain his son's connections, and there are few places to look other than the Lousada 1638 Madrid marriage which linked them to the Israel Pereiras (or Rodrigues Pereiras as they were at the time). As this marriage involved Isaac #42, it became necessary to propose how Abraham #1875 fitted into the family life of Isaac #42 - which we do here. In doing so it was impossible to avoid a conclusion that Abraham #1875 had a challenging childhood - loss of both parents, and probably being left behind in Madrid with the Israel Pereiras when his legal father Isaac #42 went to Livorno in 1640, then to be hurriedly taken to Amsterdam as part of the entourage of Tomas Rodrigues Pereira. To solve the puzzle of Isaac #42 and his last wife Luna later having a son Abraham #45, we suggest that while Abraham #1875 may have been born legitimately in Isaac's 1st marriage, he was not as Isaac's biological son! His mother died in the 1630s when he was a teenager. That is, Isaac #42 was a granduncle of Isaac #50, though probably for most legal purposes he was a grandfather.

8. The chart shows her as a sister-in-law of Abraham Israel Pereira. With the help of the Aboab 1660-2 testimony in ref 217 we can see that there was a sister-in-law of Abraham Israel Pereira - she was a sister of Abraham's wife. Esther could have thus have been the wife of a brother of Abraham Israel Pereira. The only possibility seems to be Isaac the sugar refinery co-owner - we explore this here. Perhaps the trouble that caused the potential excommunication may have been to do with Isaac's death, though we are not sure when this was other than that he seems to have been alive at the time of the Aboab testimony just discussed, but of course the trouble may have been brewing for some time (the coincidence of the birth year of Isaac #45 with the arrival in Amsterdam from Madrid of Abraham Israel Pereira - his arrival was by 12 September 1645 as we see from ref 217 - is not much to go on).

 

 

   
         
From http://www.dutchjewry.org/phpr/amsterdam/tim_sephard_marriages/amsterdam_tim_sephard_marriages_view.php?editid1=2934   On 20 May 2016 Ton Tielen sent this image from DOTAR records (PJC scan 38 page 70) of a marriage between a very young Isaac (aged 17 or 18) and Sarah whose father was a probably-deceased Solomon Pereira (who may not, according to Michael Waas on 24 Nov 2017, have been an Israel Pereira but a Baruch Pereira). One of the signatories - Ephraim Bueno - had been painted by Rembrandt and another signatory Solomon Abravanel was soon to appear in London (ref 6 p14, 26 and 142). Though Isaac Henriques Faro #1386 was appointed to DOTAR in 1660 and was replaced in 1671 by his cousin Isaac #1635 (see ref 217), his signature does not appear here - perhaps because he was a relative. See our account here which suggests he was a grand-uncle of Isaac #50. The chart above reflects a possible family connection with Isaac #1386 as more broadly discussed here.   On 1 Jan 2017 Michael Waas found this 1662 reference in Amsterdam City Archives of some 'Memorials de Advertencias' in which Rachel Louzada daughter of Esther Pereira appears. At present we do not know what the excommunication threat was triggered by.